August 15, 2002


Elections:  36th C.D., November 5, 2002 (e)


In a republic (also known a representative democracy) people vote for the public officials who will govern them by making the laws, enforcing the laws and sometimes judge them according to the laws.


Then United States is a federal republic in which elections for public officials take place on five levels of government:


Federal:  President and vice president, U.S. Senators, members of the U.S. House of Representatives (Congressmen and Congresswomen)

State: Governor, California State Senators, members of the California State Assembly (Assemblymen and Assemblywomen)

County: members of the Board of Supervisors

City: Mayors, City Councilmen

Special District: various positions


There are two ways to be elected into an office- Direct by the people in elections for mayors, governors, and congressmen, and Indirect, such as the election of the president through the Electoral College.


Democratic and republican nominees to any level are chosen through Primaries (G167m), which can either be Partisan (G181, center)- running for their own parties’ nomination, or Nonpartisan (G181m)- without party affiliation listed on the ballot.  After nominees are selected, one is elected into office in a General election.


Primaries with more than one candidate are contested primaries; the only contested primary for the 36thCD was for the republican nominee.


Nominee’s can win an election with a majority rule (G181) where they receive fifty percent plus one of the votes, or a plurality (G203) where they get the most votes.  In the United States, there is a Winner-take all rule (G166end, 167top) where the winner takes all the votes.  This is also called the Unit Rule.


If an Incumbent (G189m) is running- someone already holding the position, they are most likely to win.  But if there is no incumbent, then it is an Open Race (G189).


People can have an elected official removed from office by recall petition, if enough voters sign the petition; a special election is called to see whether or not the elected official will stay in office.


Candidates should have Endorsements, which are recommendations, for example, several government officials including 20 US House members from California endorse Republican Stuart Johnson.


The number of registered voters actually voting is called the turnout, which has been decreeing in recent years.


Officeholders may represent a District- one limited solid area, or may be At large- representing several area’s together as one, such as Los Angeles, or without a district.  


Elected officials at State and Local levels may be recalled directly from the public and taken out of office, through signed petition.


Swing or Competitive districts mean the election is uncertain, these become Target districts for candidates.  Winning a target district is important because it could decide an election for a particular candidate.


            There are three kinds of districts:

  • Congressional district (CD) – there are 435 in the country.
  • Assembly district (AD)- there are 80 in the state of California
  • Senate district (SD)- there are 40 in California.


Congressional District (CD) Election

District 36




Democrat (Incumbent)

Link to Harman




Link to Johnson




Link to McSpadden

Born 6/28/45 in New York, now resides in Marina Del Rey, CA.

Husband Sidney, four children, two of them grown.

Attorney with more than seven years of legal experience.

Lives in Manhattan Beach with wife Julie.


Enjoys triathlons, swimming in the ocean, mountain biking, jogging with dog, Baylor.


Behavior Management Consultant.  Born 2/14/52 in Fort Collins, CO, lives in San Pedro, CA.

Educational Experience:
Harvard University Law School, 1969
Smith College, 1966.

Educational Experience:

Went to UCLA and majored in Economics, also Loyola Law School.

Degree in Political Science and Psychology.


Educational Experience:
Loyola Marymount University, 1984.
University of California, Riverside, 1975.
University of California, Riverside, 1974.

Professional Experience:
    Special Counsel, Department of Defense, 1979
    Counsel, Jones Day Reavis & Pogue
    Director, Secretary, Outside General Counsel, Human International Industries
    Legislative Aide
    White House Aide.              Political Experience:
Representative, United States House of Representatives, 2000-present
    Candidate, California Governor, 1998
Representative, United States House of Representatives, District 36, 1992-1998.
Organizational Memberships:
Los Angeles County Technology Committee
    Visiting Committee,
JFK School of Government Harvard University.
    Board, Planned Parenthood of
Los Angeles
    Founder & Member,
South Bay Alliance for Choice
Venice Family Clinic.


Political Experience:                       Law clerk for Judge Richard C. Neal                          

Judge, Los Angeles County Superior Court                           

United States Court of Appeals Judge for the Ninth Circuit, appointed by President Jimmy Carter.

Organizational Memberships: Supports Big Brothers/Big Sisters of Los Angeles

Professional Experience:
    Behavior Consultant, Independent Contractor, 1995-present.

Political Experience:
    Vice Chairman, Region 66 of the California Libertarian Party, 2001-present                  Delegate, 2000 Libertarian Party National Convention, 2000
    Delegate, 2000 Libertarian Party California State Convention, 2000



Focus on LAX:  Improve air transportation in Southern California, through a regional expansion plan.

ENERGY conservation and alternative, no more energy crises, high gas rates

SECURITY:  Terrorism and homeland security preventing another attack on America. Harman is on the

House Energy and Commerce Committee and its subcommittees with jurisdiction over telecommunications, the Internet, trade, consumer protection, the environment, and hazardous materials.


STRENGTHEN National Defense/Homeland Security.  REFORM Education.         SIMPLIFY Taxes.            NATIONAL BUDGET. “We must always remember that our federal budget is not an endless source of funds that can be taken at will from the taxpayers.” ENVIRONMENT. “To do this, I will always ensure that our federal government’s environmental laws are wisely enforced but also understand that communities should have a substantial say in their local environmental regulation.”


CUT BACK GOVERNMENT at all levels: it is threatening our liberties and destroying our economy.                       ENDING THE “WAR ON DRUGS”- supports the re-legalization of drugs as the only moral and practical answer to the drug problem.                   REPEAL the income tax at both federal and state level.          STOP attempts at censorship on the internet                   PRESERVE the right to keep and bear arms for the defense of life and liberty.                         Provide SCHOOL CHOICE in education.












Gun Control

Requiring background checks, photo license ID, mandatory child safety locks, and a gun safety test.

Supports background checks, but overall, oppose licenses as a violation of privacy.

Anti-gun control, opposed to all government regulation and interference.

Campaign Finance Reform

New lobbying reform, publicly guaranteed TV time for debates, crackdown on special interest issue ads, and an endowment fund to raise money from Americans and finance Congressional elections- without any other contributions to candidates who accept the funding.

No union member should be forced to contribute money to campaigns. Called, “Paycheck Protection”

End government financing for any political party or candidate, eliminate special rights and privileges for government officials, and revision to election ballots to include all candidates for office.

School Choice

Public school competition, not private school’s who use up taxes.

Increase number of charter schools, expanding education savings accounts, general education reforms.

Separate school and state, reduction of tax support to schools, pro-private schools.

Foreign Policy/


We are not the world’s police, but must be ready to act when stakes are high.

Build and secure peace through robust military forces, strong alliances, expanding trade and resolute diplomacy.

“Peace, commerce and honest friendship- with all nations, entangling alliances with none.”

-Thomas Jefferson

Status of Gays

Supports Gay and lesbian rights.

Does not support gay “marriages”

Tolerance is key- moral values are freely chosen.



  1. What is an incumbent?
  2. Who is the incumbent in the 36th CD race?
  3. Define plurality.
  4. Is this election partisan?
  5. What is the deciding rule in this race?