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Foreign Policy Glossary (7)

(Gitelson Ch. 15 references are underscored)

 

allies

The countries fighting the axis powers were called the United Nations (UN) or the allies: the United States, France, United Kingdom, China and the Soviet Union were the main members.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

The Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand group, a Serbian nationalist group. The assassination took place while on a visit to Sarajevo, and triggered the start of World War I.

Aquino, Corazon

The Philippines received U.S. aid while under President Maria Corazon Aquino.

attentive publics (G444)

The segment of the population that is normally more interested in and better informed about relevant issues than the general public. These groups are the main audience for media coverage of foreign and defense policies.

axis

The countries fought by the Allies: Japan; Hitler in Germany (Nazi Party),Mussolini in Italy (Fascist Party), signed the Tripartite Act, creating the Tokyo-Berlin- Rome Axis, five years before World War II ended.

Bay of Pigs (G450)

The CIA played a major role in such activities as the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba, which sought to overthrow Castro.

balance of power strategy (G431)

A "realistís" approach to foreign policy, based on the need to offset any imbalance in international relations where one nation might become too powerful.

Berlin Wall

The fall of the Berlin Wall signified the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the end of Soviet Communism.

bipolar (G429)

In the eyes of many U.S. policymakers, the state of the world during the Cold War, with nations being allied either with the United States or with the Soviet Union, the two "poles".

Bosnia

The civil war within the former Yugoslavia had begun during the Bush administration. When Clinton entered office, the conflict had become more violent. Clinton refused to allow American troops to enter Bosnia due to the overwhelming opposition to it in America. A few weeks later the warring parties had negotiated a peace accord. As part of the accord, the parties asked the UN to help keep the peace while the nation rebuilt. Clinton agreed to allow American troops be part of the UN peacekeeping force despite much opposition for the policy at home. American troops began to arrive in Bosnia.

Bush, George W. (G455)

Successfully thwarted Iraqi leader Saddam Husseinís attempt to take over Kuwait in the Persian Gulf War. One of George Bushís last actions as President was to send American troops to Somalia. They were sent to stop clan violence and begin moving food and supplies to the people of the nation. American troops moved in without incident and began their mission of getting food to the people.

Camp David

War in the Middle East would result in a cut in the oil supply so President Carter called for Israel and Egypt to negotiate an end to their wars. Representatives of the three nations met at Camp David. In the resulting compromise Egypt recognized Israel as a nation and Israel withdrew from territory captured

Carter, Jimmy (G432, G445)

When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, President Carter placed a grain embargo. Carter also sought relations with communist China, and peace between Israel and Egypt. However, events in Iran took a heavy toll on the Carter administration when Iran revolutionaries seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran.

Castro, Fidel (G448)

The United States ended its formal recognition of Cuba when Fidel Castro seized American property without compensation.

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (G440)

The agency responsible for gathering and analyzing information for policy makers.

Clinton, William (G440-441, G442, G444, G452-453,G457)

Most recently sent troops to Somalia, and the former Yugoslavia,(Bosnia Herzegovina). The first time NATO had undertaken bombing missions.

Cold War (G298, G424-25, G428-29, G435, G439, G442, G450, G451, G452)

The struggle between the U.S. and Western Europe against the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies. The U.S. backed any regime that was anti-Communist; while the Soviets tried to expand their influence anywhere they could, from Cuba and Central America to the Middle East and Africa. Then when communism crumbled in Eastern Europe U.S.-Soviet relations warmed dramatically.

Congress (G443)

Congress can rely on several mechanisms when it seeks to influence both foreign and defense policies. The Senate can ratify treaties, confirm appointed officials in the foreign or defense policy bureaucracy or to an ambassadorship. Congressional control of the nationís purse strings provides an additional source of influence over foreign and defense policies.

containment (G429)

The foreign policy pursued by the United States throughout the Cold War, that called for preventing the Soviet Union from making further expansionist moves in its effort to conquer the capitalist world.

 The Iran-Contra affair (G272, G291, G328, G Ch. 15 n. 31)

During Reaganís second term in office, the national security council was under close watch for undercover operations in Iran and Nicaragua. There was suspicions of selling weapons to Iran to arrange for the secure release of American hostages in the middle east. The House and the Senate created a select committee to investigate the sales of arms to Iran. The funds acquired by the Reagan administration were being diverted to forces in Nicaragua seeking to overthrow the government. This is known as the Iran-contra affair.

Covert Actions (G450)

Activities-ranging from gathering intelligence to assassinating foreign leaders-that are intentionally hidden from public view and may be of questionable legality.

Cuban missile crisis (G429)

A Cold War confrontation between the United States and the USSR involving the locating of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. Often regarded as the watershed event in the history of the Cold War, it has been examined in detail as a classic case study of foreign and defense policy making.

Department of State (G441)

The cabinet department responsible for the day-to Ėday operation of embassies, the protection of U.S. interests abroad, formal negotiations between the United States and other nations, and the provision of advice and assistance to the president.

Department of Defense (G441)

The agency skilled most closely linked with military policymaking. It includes the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air force.

dťtente (G431)

The relaxation of tensions between nations. It became the name for President Nixonís policy of taking a more cooperative approach in dealing with Soviet Bloc nations while enhancing U.S. security arrangements with its allies.

DMZ / Demilitarized Zone

The U.S. and N.Korea made an agreement in which a nuclear power plant would be built and fuel oil would be provided in exchange for the North ceasing construction of an old style nuclear power plant. In the DMZ soldiers face each other, including soldiers from the U.S.

Domino theory

an idea current during the Cold War that justified U.S. support of South Vietnam against invasion by communist North Vietnam. The theory was that if one southeast Asian state went communist, others, such as Laos and Cambodia, would follow, giving the communists much greater influence. Sometimes used today to describe the spread of Islamic fundamentalism

East bloc

The Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan were based on containment of the Soviet Union and the East bloc, S.U. satellites and communist allies.

El Salvador

During the Reagan administration the U.S. openly governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras; and covertly aided the Contras of Nicaragua and opposed the Cuban -backed Grenada government. Reagan promised to aid anti-Communist "freedom fighters" against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.

expansionism (G427)

The pre-World War I American policy that led the United States to extend its boundaries to the Pacific while extending its influence in other areas of the world, for example, the Pacific islands, the Caribbean, and Asia.

Ford, Gerald

President Ford ordered an attack to rescue the Mayaguez and its 39 crew members. A merchant ship that was taken in the Gulf of Siam.

Formal recognition (G448)

The act whereby the president publicly accepts and acknowledges the sovereignty and government of another nation and receives its ambassador in Washington as that countryís official representative.

Foreign Service (G441)

The core personnel system of the State Department consisting of some thirty-five hundred people with expertise and training in foreign policy.

Glasnost

In the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader. Showing himself more open politically, he started glasnost (open political debate and criticism) and introduced perestroika (restructuring, encouraging individual enterprises and decentralizing administration to stimulate the economy).

Global Economy (G438)

A term given to the international conditions that emerged as a result of technological developments that made traditional economic boundaries and institutions irrelevant. Also called globalization, this trend has challenged national policies and exposed the United States and other countries to transitional problems. 

Gorbachev (G424, G434-35, G436, G451)

Soviet leader during the Reagan and early Bush administrations. Showing himself more open politically, he started glasnost (open political debate and criticism) and introduced perestroika (restructuring, encouraging individual enterprises and decentralizing administration to stimulate the economy. Reagan and Gorbachev agreed to eliminate short and medium-range nuclear missiles during the first Strategic Arms Reductions Talks (START).

Grenada

During the Reagan administration the U.S. openly governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras; and covertly aided the Contras of Nicaragua and opposed the Cuban -backed Grenada government. Reagan promised to aid anti-Communist "freedom fighters" against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.
U.S. involvement in Central America and the Caribbean was justified as prevention against Cuban military plans for the area, and in Grenada it was also for protection of American medical students from potential violence by pro-Cuban forces.

Guatemala (G443)

Congressional control of the nationís purse strings provides an additional source of influence over foreign and defense policies. Congress denied a specific Reagan administration request for aid to Guatemala, citing the oppressive policies of that nationís leaders.

Gulf of Tonkin (G298)

After Johnson reported to Congress that the USS Maddox had been attacked off the coast of North Vietnam, Congress, and President Johnson, agreed in the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to self-defense and control of aggression by communist N. Vietnam against the U.S.

Haiti (G299, G444)

To define events, President Clinton called several news reporters into his office to show them gruesome pictures of murdered critics of Haitiís current leaders. An invasion of American troops was on its way to Haiti to reinstate that countryís deposed president before an agreement was reached with Haitiís leaders.

Hitler

Dictator leader of Germany during WW II. Leader of the Nazi party.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Roosevelt died, Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan surrendered within a week.

internationalism

The belief that the greatest possible cooperation between nations in trade, culture, education, government, etc. is the best way to build peace. This is the opposite of isolationism and nationalism. In the twentieth century the founding of the League of Nations and the United Nations were great steps forward for internationalism. See also isolationism; nationalism.

Iran (G308)

Militant Iranians seized the American Embassy in Tehran, and took more than sixty American hostages. The Carter administration tried diplomatic, economic and military action to free the hostages. Carter barred Americans from traveling in Iran, with the exception of journalists During this, Iran had entered a war with Iraq making the economic sanctions more hurtful to the Iranians. Khomeini finally agreed to release the hostages in return for the unfreezing of Iranian assets in the US.

Iraq (G11, G291, G299, G438, G449)

Iraqi troops, under orders from their leader Saddam Hussein, invaded and occupied the small nation of Kuwait and threatened to move into Saudi Arabia. President Bush responded by sending 100,000 U.S. troops and a large force of warplanes to Saudi Arabia. He then pushed a series of resolutions through the United Nations Security Council that ordered Iraq to leave Kuwait and created a total economic embargo on Iraq. Even though Bush felt he did not have to, he turned to Congress for their support for war in the Persian Gulf. A mere hundred hours after the beginning of the land invasion, Bush called an end to the war. Kuwait was freed from the Iraqi troops.

isolationism (G426, G427, G428)

A basic tenet of American policy before World War I that advocated American neutrality and avoidance of direct involvement in European affairs.

Israel (G432, G438, G445-46, G448)

President Truman formally recognized the State of Israel within hours of receiving word that the new nation had been formed. Because controversy and violence accompanied Israelís birth, diplomatic recognition by the United States was critically important and helped establish a close relationship between the two countries.

Joint Chiefs of Staff (G441)

The high-ranking military officers who represent the army, navy, airforce, and marines. They provide advice to the president and coordinate military actions undertaken by U.S. force.

Johnson, Lyndon B.

President who ordered more troops to Vietnam after a U.S. ship was attacked in the Gulf of Tonkin. The Gulf of Tonkin resolution was signed after this incident.

Korean War (G297-98, G429, G430, G451)

War broke out between North and South Korea. Truman immediately recognized this as a threat to the free world and called on the United Nations to mandate an expulsion of North Korea form South Korea. Underlying the United States support of the South Koreans was the nation's stance to contain communism. Peace talks began in the early summer, but carried on past Truman's presidency.

Kuwait (G11, G299, G436)

Saddam Hussein, the leader of Iraq, successfully invaded Kuwait. American troopís were sent by President Bush to liberate the small country from Iraq. The liberation was successful after only three months.

Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia

The Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania won independence from the USSR, shortly after the Berlin Wall fell, beginning the end of the Cold War.

 

Marshall plan (G449)

A plan proposed by Secretary of state George Marshall to provide financial aid and low-cost loans to help rebuild Europe after World War II.

Mayaguez

During the Cold War, Communists invaded Cambodia and took captive American merchant ship Mayaguez in the Gulf of Siam. President Ford ordered an attack to rescue the ship and its 39 crew members.

Mao Tse-tung

The government of Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-Shek was so corrupt that it made U.S. aid ineffective. Chinese Communists under dictator Mao Tse-tung took over China, making it the People's Republic of China (PRC). Chiang fled to Formosa (Taiwan), where he became president of the Republic of China (ROC).

Also Chiang Kai-shek:

Attorney General Edward Meese

Found that the millions of dollars from the arms sale were funneled into funds for the Nicaraguan rebels. The rebels, known as the Contras, were waging a war against their leftist government with the help of the Central Intelligence Agency.

Mussolini

Germany withdrew from the League and began rearmament, violating the treaty of Versailles. Hitler took Austria, and bargained with Joseph Stalin to divide Poland between Germany and the S.U. Japan, Hitler in Germany and Mussolini in Italy signed the Tripartite Act, creating the Tokyo-Berlin-Rome Axis.

mutually assured destruction (MAD) (G456)

Each of the nuclear powers would hold the other in check by maintaining the ability to annihilate the other in any major confrontation.

NATO (G430, G435)

America abandoned the policy of "abstention from entangling alliances in peacetime," joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) of democratic countries of Europe. It included Britain, France and BENELUX, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway and Portugal. The alliance was a protection from the communist threat.

National security counsel (G440)

A council created by Congress to advise the president on foreign policy and to coordinate its implementation.

Nicaragua (G272, G308, G443, G448, G449, G450)

Anastasio Somoza was toppled by (Marxist) Sandinistas in Nicaragua. During the Reagan administration the U.S. openly supported governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras; and covertly aided the Contras of Nicaragua and opposed the Cuban -backed Grenada government. Reagan promised to aid anti-Communist "freedom fighters" against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.

OPEC (G426, G432)

A war had started between Israel and its Arab neighbors. Under the banner of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, (OPEC), oil producers began raising the price and reducing the supply of crude oil. Since the US was supporting Israel the Arab member states of OPEC placed an embargo on western oil exportation.

Panama (G291, G299)

The U.S. forced Manuel Noriega out of power in Panama andrestored the elected, legitimate president.  

Palestine

In the Middle East, the U.S. had to restrain Russian expansion into oil resources such as Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Also, Israel (former Palestine) was in constant friction with neighboring nations. Truman had consistently supported Israel and this caused resentment of the U.S. among those Arab neighbors, adding to national, ethnic and religious dissections in the Middle East, like the movement by Palestinians in Jordan and Israel for a Palestine nation.

Reagan, Ronald

President during the Iran-Contra affair. During the Reagan administration the U.S. openly supported governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras; and covertly aided the Contras of Nicaragua and opposed the Cuban -backed Grenada government. Reagan promised to aid anti-Communist "freedom fighters" against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.

Roosevelt, Franklin D.

President during World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked and the U.S. joined forces with the allies in the war. He Passed away before the end of the war, and Harry S. Truman received command.

Saddam Hussein (G11, G452)

Iraq attacked Kuwait under Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. The UN immediately imposed a trade embargo on Iraq; U.S After negotiations Iraq refused to withdraw. After a month of battle Iraqi armies surrendered. Iraq agreed to cease-fire resolutions and long-term weapons inspections. Saddam S. Hussein has set up a dictatorship, eliminating all manifestations of opposition since he became President.

Senate (G443)

The Senate can affect presidential policies through itís power to ratify treaties negotiated by the White House.

SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative)(G457)

Drew most of itís attention during the latter part of the Reagan administration. Also termed "Star Wars," it was a proposed space-station-based weapons system that would render nuclear threats "impotent and obsolete."

Sandanistas

Anastasio Somoza was toppled by (Marxist) Sandinistas in Nicaragua. During the Reagan administration the U.S. openly supported governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras; and covertly aided the Contras of Nicaragua and opposed the Cuban -backed Grenada government. Reagan promised to aid anti-Communist "freedom fighters" against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua

Somalia (G438)

One of George Bushís last actions as President was to send American troops to Somalia. They were sent to stop clan violence and begin moving food and supplies to the people of the nation. American troops moved in without incident and began their mission of getting food to the people. However, as Clinton entered office and American troops remained in Somalia for a longer amount of time, violence against them and other UN peacekeepers increased. After 15 months in Somalia, Clinton ordered the troops home. During combat in Somalia, 30 American troops had been killed and 175 wounded. As the United States left, the two biggest clans signed a peace agreement.

Somoza, Anastasio

Anastasio Somoza was toppled by (Marxist) Sandinistas in Nicaragua. During the Reagan administration the U.S. openly supported governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras; and covertly aided the Contras of Nicaragua and opposed the Cuban -backed Grenada government. Reagan promised to aid anti-Communist "freedom fighters" against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua

Stalin

Germany withdrew from the League and began rearmament, violating the treaty of Versailles. Hitler took Austria, and bargained with Joseph Stalin to divide Poland between Germany and the S.U. Japan. In the Soviet Union, marxist-leninist dictator Joseph Stalin died and was replaced by Nikita KhrushChev.

third world (G430, G449, G452)

The impoverished or developing countries of the world, made up mostly of Asian, African, and South American countries.

Tianamen Square (G435)

Student demonstrations for democracy in China became massive. Many students died crushed by PLA tanks on Tiananmen Square. This event influenced Gorbachev's decision to ce-twx communism in the S.U.

Truman, Harry s.

After President F.D. Roosevelt passed on, Harry S. Truman was sworn in as president. President when congress declared war after the attack on Pearl Harbor. President when the U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Truman Doctrine (G294)

A policy enunciated by President Harry Truman, when he pledged U.S. support for "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." If America failed to do this, said Truman, world peace would be endangered. The speech referred in particular to U.S. aid to Greece and Turkey.

Turkey/Greece (G428)

A year after WW II had ended, the Soviet Union was tightening itís hold on occupied areas. It was also challenging British influence in the Mediterranean lands such as Greece, Turkey, and the Middle East. The British withdrew their forces because they could not keep their commitments to Greece or Turkey. A few weeks later, Harry S. Truman wanted to provide support to politically and economically threatened countries. The general policy to provide support for these countries marked the beginning of the cold war.

United Nations (UN) (G428, G445)

Consists of 159 member countries representing 98 percent of the world's population. The UN was established in San Francisco, after World War II to solve international disputes that threaten world peace and security. It advocates the equal rights of women and men, of all races, and of small and large countries; it works to maintain justice and uphold international law; it promotes social progress and improved standard of living; it creates organizations to study world problems and administer various programs.  

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Aims to promote collaboration among nations through education, science and culture. The U.S. withdrew from UNESCO because of its alleged anti-Western bias. Headquarters is in Paris.

Unilateralism (G427)

The pre-World War I American policy of taking action independently in foreign affairs, avoiding political or military alliances.

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Provides aid and development assistance to children and mothers in developing countries. The headquarters is in New York.

Vietnam War (G199, G298, G446, G450)

The civil war that had been fought in Vietnam began to escalate. In following with the Cold War policy of communist containment, military advisors had been sent to Vietnam. However, the Kennedy administration increased the number of troops in Vietnam. When Johnson took over in office, the number of troops had grown. However, on a supposed attack on United States Navy destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin shifted the role of the United States Military in Southeast Asia. Congress, at Johnson's urging, passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, which allowed Johnson the use of any measures necessary to repel any armed attack and prevent any further aggression against the United States. This measure was the key for the increased involvement in Vietnam by the United States.

Warsaw Pact

The military organization of Eastern Europe signed in Warsaw, Poland, by Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Soviet Union. It was a communist counterpart to NATO. Warsaw Pact members were bound to assist each other in the event of an attack on any one of them.

West Bank

Iraq attacked Kuwait. The UN immediately imposed a trade embargo on Iraq; U.S. troops were sent to Saudi Arabia. After negotiations Iraq refused to withdraw. After a month of battle Iraqi armies surrendered. Iraq agreed to cease-fire resolutions and long-term weapons inspections. Saddam S. Hussein has set up a dictatorship, eliminating all manifestations of opposition since he became President. Iraq linked its occupation of Kuwait with Israel's take-over of the West Bank.

Wilson, Woodrow

World War 1: the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary) fought the Allied Powers (Great Britain, France and Russia). President Wilson sent the first troops. After the War Wilson created the League of Nations, a permanent peacetime international security organization.

Yeltsin

Boris Yeltsin became the new Russian President, replacing M. Gorbachev and bringing an end to Communist rule in the country.