1. Turkey/Greece (G 428)--The beginning of the Cold War, 1946-1947


A.     The Soviet Union was using its control of Eastern Europe to install Communist governments; these nations would be Soviet allies against the West.

B.     Truman perceived that one of the greatest threats would be the fall of Greece and Turkey to Communism.

C.     He countered this threat by giving 400 million dollars in aid to Turkey and Greece, in an effort to demonstrate the United State’s commitment to help these nations.

D.     In 1949 the United Sates formed a coalition of nations to stop possible future Soviet aggression; United Nations (UN) - consists of 159 member countries representing 98 percent of the world's population.    


   2. Israel-- 1948: Formal Recognition. (G 432, 438, 445-448)


A.    U.S. had to restrain Russian expansion into oil resources such as Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Also, Israel (former Palestine) was in constant friction with neighboring nations.

B.     War in the Middle East would result in a cut in the oil supply so President Carter called for Israel and Egypt to negotiate an end to their wars. Representatives of the three nations met at Camp David.

C.     President Truman granted the formal recognition to the state of Israel.  The recognition took place hours after the word on the new nation had been announced.  At the end of the cold war, the Soviet Union’s states sought the same legitimacy to the U.S. to form new relations on different terms.

D.    In the resulting compromise Egypt recognized Israel as a nation and Israel withdrew from territory captured in 1967.

E.     The United States became involved in the peacekeeping force in Lebanon when a fight broke out between the PLO and the Christian (Maronite) Phalange, with Israel and Syrian intervention.

F.      Latest News:  As of Tuesday October 23, 2001. The Bush administration persisted in pressuring Israel Tuesday to withdraw its forces from Palestinian areas of the West Bank.      


1970’s:  International affairs.

Camp David, OPEC, Iranian hostage crisis. 

   3. Camp David (G 432)

A.     War in the Middle East would result in a cut in the oil supply so President Carter called for Israel and Egypt to negotiate an end to their wars. Representatives of the three nations met at Camp David.

B.     In the resulting compromise Egypt recognized Israel as a nation and  Israel  withdrew from territory captured in 1967.






 4. OPEC (G 432)

A.   In 1960, enraged by unilateral cuts in oil prices by the seven big oil companies, the governments of the major oil-exporting countries formed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC.

B.    OPEC's goal was to try to prevent further cuts in the price that the member countries—Venezuela and four countries around the Persian Gulf—received for oil.

C.    Iraq accused Kuwait of producing more oil than allowed under rules set by OPEC, thereby depressing the price of oil, Iraq's main export.

D.   Latest News:  As of Monday October 22, 2001.  Russia is not planning to cut oil production now but it may reduce its output after next month's meeting of OPEC.


 5. Iranian hostage crisis (G 434, 435, 448) 

A.   In January 1979 the followers of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a conservative Muslim clergyman, forced Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who had ruled Iran for 37 years, to flee abroad.

B.    In November 1979, militant Iranians, who supported the ayatollah and opposed Western influences, especially the United States, stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran (Teheran), the capital of Iran, taking 66 Americans hostage.

C.    Thirteen were soon released, but for the release of the other 53, Iran demanded a U.S. apology for acts committed in support of the shah, his return to face trial (unimportant after his death in July 1980), and return of the billions of dollars that he was said to have hoarded abroad.

D.   Negotiations did not secure their release, nor did a U.S. commando raid the following April.



    6.  Iran (G 308)

A.    Radical students, backed by the government, seized more than fifty American hostages at the U.S. embassy in late 1979 and held them for 444 days, creating a major crisis in U.S.- Iran relations that has yet to heal

B.     Iran has become a major obsession for U.S. policymakers, resulting in stringent economic sanctions and other measures.

C.     The strident anti-Americanism of Iran’s Islamic regime is a direct consequence of past U.S. interference in Iranian internal affairs.

D.    Ironically, U.S. policy toward Iran has hardened as the regime has become increasingly moderate.

E.     Latest News: As of Tuesday October 23, 2001.  Turkey expects to start receiving natural gas through a new pipeline from Iran by mid-December. The United States, a close ally of Turkey, has strongly opposed the gas deal with Iran.  The CIA's covert role in reinstalling Mohammed Reza Pahlavi as Shah of Iran in 1953 was made public two years ago.


 7.  Iran-Contra (G 272, 291, 308, 328)

A.    The scandal started when, with the encouragement of National Security Advisor Robert C. McFarlane, Reagan signed a secret initiative that authorized the sale of U.S. arms to Iran in exchange for the release of hostages held by pro-Iranian terrorists.

B.     The initiative was opposed by Reagan’s top cabinet officials, Defense Secretary Casper Weinberger and Secretary of State George Shultz.

C.     They feared that it would give cause to other terrorists feeling that they too would get compensated by the United States.

D.    The initiative went against the government’s public policy of not trading with Iran or Iraq.


1990’s: Approval of congress

Saddam Hussein, Iraq, Kuwait  

   8.  Saddam Hussein (G 11, 152)

    1. Saddam Hussein attacked Kuwait in 1990; Iraq linked its occupation of Kuwait with Israel’s take-over of the West Bank in 1967.
    2. U.N. immediately imposed a trade embargo; U.S. troops were sent to Saudi Arabia…a month after, Iraqi armies surrendered.
    3. In 1993, Iraq agreed to a cease-fire resolution and a long term weapons inspection.
    4. Latest News:  As of Tuesday October 23, 2001.  George Bush Sr. says he has no regrets about not going after Hussein in the 1991 Gulf War.  U.S. is unlikely to take action on Hussein, but the tightening of the 11-year-old U.N. sanctions may be enforced.   


 9.  Iraq (G 438, 449)

A.     Persian Gulf War- In 1990 Iraq revived a long-standing territorial dispute with Kuwait, its ally during the war with Iran, claiming that overproduction of petroleum by Kuwait was injuring Iraq's economy by depressing the price of crude oil.

B.     When Iraq failed to comply (withdraw), a coalition led by the United States began intensive aerial bombardment of military and infrastructural targets in Iraq and Kuwait in January 1991.

C.     In June 1993 the United States launched a widely criticized cruise missile attack against Iraq in retaliation for a reported assassination plot against former U.S. president George Bush.

D.     Hussein's interference with UN weapons inspectors nearly brought Iraq into another military crisis in early 1998.

E.      Through 2001, Iraq continued to challenge the patrols, and British and U.S. planes struck Iraqi missile launch sites and other targets.

F.      Latest News:  As of Tuesday October 23, 2001.  Iraqi newspapers and officials denied any link to the release of killer anthrax bacteria in the United States but said U.N. inspectors would not be allowed back to investigate Baghdad's weapons programs.






10.  Kuwait (G 299, 436)


A.     Kuwait was attacked and overrun by Iraq on 1990. Following several weeks of aerial bombardment, a US-led UN coalition began a ground assault on February 23, 1991 that completely liberated Kuwait in four days.

B.     Kuwait has spent more than $5 billion to repair oil infrastructure damaged during 1990-91.

C.     Kuwait's economy is small, relatively open with proved crude oil reserves of about 94 billion barrels - 10% of world reserves. Petroleum accounts for nearly half of GDP, 90% of export revenues, and 75% of government income.

D.     Latest News:  As of Tuesday October 23, 2001.  Half the members of Kuwait's 50-strong elected parliament urged the United States to end its military campaign against Afghanistan.