Us Foreign Policy Background to The Current Crisis
1946-1947† The beginning of the cold war.
Turkey††† G.† 428
A year after WW II had ended, the Soviet Union was tightening itís hold on occupied areas.† It was also challenging British influence in the Mediterranean lands such as Greece, Turkey, and the middle east.† The British withdrew their forces because they could not keep their commitments to Greece or Turkey.† A few weeks later, Harry S. Truman wanted to provide support to politically and economically threatened countries.† The general policy† to provide support for these countries marked the beginning of the cold war.
1. What marked the beginning of the cold war?
2. Who did the U.S. openly decide to support in Turkey?
3. Who did the soviet Union challenge in the Mediterranean areas?
4. Which president opposed the Soviet Unionís occupation in threatened countries after the British withdrew commitment and which started the cold war?
Israel G. 448
The U.S. uses different ways to establish foreign relations.† One way to make ties is formal recognition.† This is when the President of the U.S. publicly accepts and acknowledges another nation and receives their ambassadors in Washington as that countries representative.† President Truman granted the formal recognition to the state of Israel.† The recognition took place hours after the word on the new nation had been announced.† At the end of the cold war, the Soviet Unionís states sought the same legitimacy to the U.S. to form new relations on different terms.
1. Why is it important for the U.S. to formally recognize a nation?
2. What is one way for the U.S. to establish foreign relations?.
3. What is Formal Recognition?
1970ís† International affairs.
Israel, President Carter, OPEC.† G. 432, 445
Under the banner of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, (OPEC) , oil producers began raising the price and reducing the supply of crude oil during the early 1970ís.† A war had started between Israel and its Arab neighbors.† Since the U.S. was supporting Israel the Arab member states of OPEC placed and embargo on western oil exportation. When the embargo ended, Americans began to realize how much international developments affected the U.S. economy.†
1. What does OPEC stand for?
2. Who placed an embargo on western oil shipments?
3. What were Americans aware of after the embargo on oil export?
When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, President Carter placed a grain embargo.† Carter also sought relations with China, and peace between Israel and Egypt.† However, events in Iran took a heavy toll on the Carter administration when Iranian revolutionaries seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran.† This added to the general feeling of Americans realizing they were vulnerable to international affairs.
1. Which President placed an embargo on grain to the Soviet Union?
2. Which U.S. embassy was seized by Iranian revolutionaries?
3. What was the feelings of American citizens after the hostage situation in Iran?
1980ís† Select committee involvement
Iran, Iran-Contra, G. 272, 291, 308
During Reaganís second term in office, the national security council was under close watch.† There was suspicions of selling weapons to Iran to arrange for the secure release of American hostages in the middle east.† The House and the Senate created a select committee to investigate the sales of arms to Iran.† The funds acquired by the Reagan administration were being diverted to forces in Nicaragua seeking to overthrow the government.† This is known as the Iran-contra affair.
1. Where were funds from arms sales to Iran diverted?
2. What president was in office during suspicion of weapons sales to Iran?
3. Why did the senate and house create a subcommittee in the Reagan era?
4. What nation did the national security council sell arms to in the Reagan era?
1990ís† Approval of congress
Saddam Hussein, Israel, Iraq, Kuwait† G.† 11,299, 436, 438, 449, 452
President George Bush gave Congress considerable freedom in dealing with the forces of Saddam Hussein.††† The leader of Iraq had successfully invaded Kuwait.†† After the cold war many countries arose as nuclear threats, including many third world countries such as Israel.† Congress approved the president to use ďall means necessary ď to force Iraq out of Kuwait.† The U.S. did not leave Iraq to suffer from their leadership offering humanitarian aid to the Kurdish people of Iraq.
1. What other country besides Iraq, also gained nuclear prowess?
2. Who was the leader of Iraq during the Persian Gulf war?
3. What country did congress approve using force for driving out Iraq?
4. What country did the U.S. supply humanitarian aid to after the gulf war?