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I) Growth of Presidency

            A) Washington established meeting of heads. (p.287)

            B) Adams lost to Jefferson (Jeffersonians: predecessor of modern Democratic Party). (p. 287)

            C) Whig theory: Congress is center of Government. (p. 288)

            D) Lincoln(R): elected to Congress from Whig party. (p. 288)

            E) Emancipation Proclamation: done without Congress approval. (p. 288-289)

            F) Lincoln followed by weak presidents (referred to as Bearded Presidents). (p. 289)

            G) Theodore Roosevelt: strong leader. Had "Stewardship theory" of Presidents power:

                duty to take whatever action needed, just as long as its within laws of the country. (p. 289)

            H) Tethered presidency: meaning president too constrained to be effective. President not

                free to do whatever he wants. (p. 290)



II) Presidential Roles

            A) Chief of State: public relations figure at home. (p. 292)

            B) Chief Executive: Function is to make sure the laws are “faithfully executed”, as stated in Constitution. (p. 292)

                        a) Power to appoint/remove staff. (p. 292)

                        b) Power to remove any officials is limited. “Constitution is silent.” (p. 293)

                        c) Does however have power to remove officials with purely executive functions. (p. 293)

d) For quasi-legislative & quasi-judicial Jobs: Congress has a say in appointing. (p. 293)

                        e) Power to pardon: Power Congress cannot limit. (p. 293)

            f) executive privilege: President right to keep info from Congress not stated in

               Constitution. Example of claiming privilege: US v. Nixon: If it’s a criminal  

                           charge = President can’t use privilege. (p. 294)

            C) Chief Diplomat: written in Constitution.

            a) Treaties: Make treaties with advice and consent of Congress. May consult with

                some of Senate, but not with all. (p. 294)        

                        b) Executive agreements: agreements with other nations. May make without

                            Senate consent. Next President not bound to follow the agreements. (p. 295)

c) Congressional executive agreement: President makes treaty, submitted to

    Congress to approve it with majority vote (If given to both houses=President can

    win assent & avoid 2/3 rule). (p. 295)

            d) Power of recognition: receiving diplomats/ambassadors=recognize him as official country

                sponsor. (p. 296)

                        e) Appoint ambassadors/diplomats. (p. 296)                   

            D) Commander in Chief: of army/navy: (p .296)

                        -Example of power: War Powers Resolution: can send troops without need for

                         Congress permission if troops will be stationed no longer than 60 days. (p. 298)

            E) Chief Legislator: initiate/guide policies. (p. 299)

                        a) Recommend legislation/programs. (p. 299)

                        b) President signature not needed for bill to be law.

c) Does something with bill from Congress:                    

                            1) Signs bills within 10 days = it becomes law. (p. 300)

                            2) Veto power: Bill returned to Congress. President’s ultimate weapon.  (p. 300)

                            3) Line-item veto: unconstitutional via Clinton v. NY because it allowed President to

                                make a different law. (p. 302)

                        d) Does nothing with bill:

                            1) No action after 10 days when Congress in session = bill becomes law. (p. 300)

                            2) Pocket veto: kills bill. When President does not sign during last 10 days of session. (p. 301)

                        e) Riders: provisions that President is known to not like, but is attached to bills he likes. (p. 302)



III) President’s organizations

            A) Cabinet: original advisory group. Has heads of major executive departments.

     Not provided in Constitution. (p. 305)

B) Presidential Executive Office (p. 306)

                        a) Executive order: rule/regulation of President that has effect of a law. (p. 306)

b) Office of Management and Budget(OMB): largest organization. Budgets.

    Makes sure proposal consistent with president’s programs. (p. 306)

            c) Council of Economic Advisors: deals with economic issues. (p. 307)

            d) National Security Council: advises on foreign and defense policy. (p. 307)

C) White House Office (p .308)

a) Serves President’s political needs. (p. 308)

            b) “Wheel" style: several aides report information directly to President.

                Competition to give President information = gives President maximum information. (p. 308)

D) Vice President (p .309)

a) 25th Amendment: Vice President can be president if President unable to do job (is disabled or

    Cabinet declares him unfit). (p. 309)

            b) His duties determined by President. (p. 309)



IV) Presidential Influence (p .310)

A) Persuading Congress:

                        a) Party loyalty: is stronger w/ Republicans. (p. 312)

            b) Lobbying staff: Office of congressional relations: coordinates lobbying activities. (p. 312)

            c) Personal appeal: how President is liked by Congress. (p. 313)

B) Public opinion:  cycle of decreasing influence": Public opinion decreases as term goes on. (p. 314)