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OUTLINE GITELSON CHAPTER 12 BUREAUCRACY (3)

 

 

 

I) Federal Bureaucracy

A) Bureaucracy: large and complex. Employees with specific job responsibilities within†††

a hierarchy. (p. 321)

a) Political appointees: people appointed by President to positions. Occupies

††††††††††††††††††††††††††† strategic government positions. (p. 323)

††††††††††† b) Cabinet: official advisory board to President. Has 14 heads of each department. (p. 323)

††††††††††††††††††††††† c) Patronage: getting jobs through connections, not necessarily through ability. (p. 323)

††††††††††† d) Spoils system: all go to winner's party. (p. 323)

B) Merit System: merit used to gain office rather than background/connections. (p. 324)

††††††††††††††††††††††† a) Pendleton Act: First merit based personnel system made. (p. 324)

b) General Civil Service System: merit system covering white collar & technical

††† jobs. (p. 324)

c) Senior Executive Service(SES): highest employment category. Specializes in

†† managing agencies. (p. 324)

C) Wage Systems: blue collar job system. Represented by unions. (p. 325)

D) Job of Bureaucracy:

a) To implement policies of federal government. (p. 325)

b) Proxy administration: Things government uses to carry out government programs. (p. 326)

1)     Government contracts (For example: contracts by Defense to build weapons)

2)     Grant-in-aid (For example: grants for schools)

3)     Loan guarantee

4)     Establishment of government-sponsored enterprises

E) Where federal civil servants work:

††††††††††††††††††††††† a) EOP: Executive Office of President help/advise President. (p. 327)

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1) Office of Management & Budget(OMB): is a link to most of the other agencies. (p. 327)

2) White House Office(WHO): Has Presidentís key advisors/assistants. (p. 327)

††††††††††† b) Cabinet departments: has smaller units called bureaus. (p. 330)

c) Independent agencies: 200+ agencies. Independent of EOP and Cabinet. (p. 330)

d) Regulatory Commission: agency by president appointed boards. Deals with

††† economic policies. (p. 331)

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1) Quasi-legislative function: authorized by Congress to make laws. (p. 332)†††††††

2) Quasi-judicial: can hold hearings of rule violators. Decisions can be

††† appealed.(p. 332)

††††††††††† e) Government corporation: carryout specific economic/service functions. For

††† ††††††††††††example: USPS for mail. (p. 332)

 

 

II) Growth of American Bureaucracy

A) Expanded in response to conditions in society. (p. 334)

B) Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA): oversee regulation of workplace conditions. (p. 338)

C) Bureaucratic power: government power from law, support, expertise, time in office, skill, leadership etc. (p. 338)

D) Militias: against growth of government power. (p. 338)

 

 

III) Sources of Bureaucratic Power:

A)     External: outside the agencies. From general public, special interest groups, media,

†††† Congress, White House. (p. 339)

a) Policy sub-governments: political alliances, interest groups, some Congress

††† members. (p. 340)

1) Cozy triangles: sub-government groups being powerful coalitions.

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Low public profile, few members. (p. 340)

2) Issue networks: opposite from triangles. Large group with different

††† degrees of interest/commitment to policies/problems. These interests††

††† bring them together. (p. 340)

b) Expertise: competence in doing their job. (p. 341)

††††††††††† c) Discretion: using own judgment to carry out policies. (p. 342)

††††††††††† d) Length in office (p. 342)

†††††††††† e) Skill/leadership (p. 342)

B) Limiting bureaucratic power

††††††††††† a) Self-restraint/limit their resources. (p. 343)

††††††††††††††††††††††† b) White House: choosing people that will be loyal to the one in office. (p. 343)

††††††††††† c) Congress: with its mandates, legislation. (p. 344)

††††††††††† d) Courts: (p. 345)

††††††††††† e) Other restraints:

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1) Whistle-blowers: risk careers, report corruption/waste. (p. 346)

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 2) Inspector general: investigates complaints/suspicious behavior. (p. 346)

 

 

IV) Bureaucratic Problems/Reforms:

A) Bureaucratic pathologies: bureau behavior that feed myths of incompetence. (p. 347)

††††††††††† 1) Clientelism: serving public that a program is created for. (p. 357)

††††††††††† 2) Incrementalism: moving cautiously and slowly when carrying out programs. (p. 347)

††††††††††† 3) Arbitrariness: to do its business effectively/efficiently through

†††††††††† ††††††††††††††††Standard Operating Procedures(SOPs): regularized procedures. (p. 348)

††††††††††† 4) Parochialism: concentration in getting the job done. (p. 349)

††††††††††† 5) Imperialism: expanding agency operations and taking on more responsibilities. (p. 349)

B) Calls for reform

††††††††††† 6) Privatization: work of government turned to private sector. (p. 351)

7) Ombudsman: has person in agency who's responsible for hearing complaints

††† related to programs/policies. (p. 351)

8) Reinventing government: empowerment/decentralization of government in order

††† to enhance performance of government agencies and programs. (p. 352)

 

 

 

GITELSON CHAPTERS 11 & 12 FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY (V): data from

http://www.lahc.cc.ca.us/socsci/guerrero/outburv.htm

 

Each agency under the executive branch enforces laws passed by Congress by enacting rules and regulations. Agencies are funded by Congress and are usually created by Congress.

 

I) EOP: EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT: appointments solely at the president's, discretion does not require Senate approval, serve until removed by the president

 

1) WHO: White House Office - closest advisors/speech writers

2) OMB: Office of Management & Budget - drafts budget; manages spending

3) NSC: National Security Council - advises on national security/foreign policy

 

 

 

II) CABINET DEPARTMENTS:each except Justice, headed by a secretary. Appointments have Senate approval. Serve until removed by President.

 

1) USDA: Department of Agriculture: certifies meat/poultry/eggs/manages national††† forests

††††††††††† a) Forest Service: support services within national forests. Help against wildfires.

2) DOC: Department of Commerce: interstate/international commerce.

††††††††††† a) Census Bureau: conducts the Census/statistics

3) DOD: Department of Defense: national security, defense, research, gathers intelligence

4) DoEd: Department of Education: education standards. formerly HEW, financial aid.

5) DOE: Department of Energy: researches forms of energy/national security by reducing WMD

6) HHS: Department of Health and Human Services: health services. formerly HEW.

††††††††††† a) FDA: Food and Drug Administration: approves food, drugs for public use

b) CDC: Centers For Disease Control: detects, prevents, and documents disease

††† outbreaks

††††††††††† c) PHS: Public Health Service: National Institute For Health: gives out vaccines/public health information

7) HUD: Department of Housing and Urban Development: housing standards. affordable housing,††

††††††††††††† financing.

8) DOI: Department of the Interior: manages federal lands

a) NPS: National Park Service: provides support services and rules in national parks

b) BIA: Bureau of Indian Affairs: services for Native Americans(ie job training/health care)

c) BLM: Bureau of Land Management: land title information, regulates use of federal

††† lands. To help fight wildfires.

9) DOJ: Department of Justice: arrests, prosecutes, incarcerates

††††††††††† a) FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigationinvestigates federal crimes

b) INS: Immigration and Naturalization Service: processes/naturalizes legal immigrants.

††† Border Patrol.

c) DEA: Drug Enforcement Administration:gathers intelligence, monitors sale of††

††† chemicals for drugs

††††††††††† d) BOP: Bureau of Prisons: manages federal prisons

10) DOL: Department of Labor: labor laws, protects workers rights

a) BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics: data on employment, unemployment, work related

††† injury.

b) OSHA: Occupational Safety and Hazard Administration: investigates work related†††

††† accidents.

11) DOS: Department of State: promotes U.S. policy abroad

a) Foreign Service: manages foreign embassy personnel representing the U.S. abroad.

12) DOT: Department of Transportation:regulates all modes of transportation

a) U.S. Coast Guard: [in time of war is part of Department of Defense] rescue services,

††† drug interdiction.

††††††††††† b) FAA: Federal Aviation Administration: certifies pilots, monitors use of airspace

13) Department of Treasury:handles government finances

a) BATF: Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms: regulates alcohol/tobacco/firearms

††† industries.

b) USCS: Customs Service: drugs, collects revenue, prevents intellectual property rights

††† violations.

c) Secret Service [EPS]: provides executive protection, investigates counterfeit currency,

d) IRS: Internal Revenue Service: collects revenue, investigates tax fraud and evasion†††††††

14) Department of Veterans Affairs: health care/rehabilitation/homeless assistance, job training for veterans.

 

 

 

III) REGULATORY COMMISSIONS: headed by governing boards appointed by president. Approved by Senate. Service long fixed terms.

 

1) CPSC: Consumer Product Safety Commission: issues standards/recalls. gives public consumer education.

2) Civil Rights Commission: investigates, issue laws, reports findings to president/Congress,

3) EEOC: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: investigates charges of civil rights

†† violations.

4) FCC: Federal Communications Commission: regulates radio, television broadcasting & cable communication.

5) FEC: Federal Election Commission: enforces FECA regulations about campaign finance

6) FMC: Federal Maritime Commission: licenses/investigates maritime (shipping) industries

7) FPC: Federal Power Commission: licenses shipment of power(ie natural gas, through interstate pipelines).

8) FRB: Federal Reserve Board: oversees the Federal Reserve System, regulates banks

9) FTC: Federal Trade Commission: promotes consumer protection, regulates advertising practices.

10) NLRB: National Labor Relations Board:New Deal mediates between labor unions and employers.

11) NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission: regulates nuclear power plants(ie transport, research, disposal).

12) SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission: New Deal, registers securities transacts, sets market conditions.

 

 

 

IV) GOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS: government-owned. Sell services/products. headed by governing boards appointed by the president. Approved by the Senate. Service long fixed terms.

 

1) CPB: Corporation for Public Broadcasting: funding for public Television, and radio

2) CNS: Corporation for National Service: organizes public interest in volunteer service

3) FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: New Deal, passes regulations, insures accounts to $100K.

4) TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority: New Deal, provides power, is the nations largest provider

5) USPS: United States Postal Service: provides mail service, investigates mail fraud

 

 

V) INDEPENDENTAGENCIES/ SINGLE PURPOSE AGENCIES: headed by an appointed administrator approved by the Senate. Service is until removal by the president.

 

1) CIA: Central Intelligence Agency: intelligence gathering, ensures national security

2) EPA: Environmental Protection Agency: researches, enforces and enacts regulations protecting the environment

3) FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency: provides disaster relief, includingloans and reconstruction services

4) GSA: General Services Administration: facilities maintenance and other to federal agencies

5) NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration: space research

6) NCUA: National Credit Union Administration: supervises, regulates federal credit unions

7) NTSB: National Transportation and Safety Board: investigates accidents, and safety questions

8) OPM: Office of Personnel Management: provides human resource services for the government

9) SSS: Selective Service System: to recruit pool of manpower for the military in times of war

10) SBA: Small Business Administration: support for small businesses through loans, advice, and training; includes:

††††††††††† SCORE†† -†† ACE-Net

11) SSA: Social Security Administration: New Deal [includes Medicare program begun under the

1) Great Society(by LB. Johnson): created by the Depression-era Social Security Act; issues social security

††† numbers, pays benefits to retirees.

 

 

VI) NO LONGER EXISTING AGENCIES

 

A) ACTION/ Independent Executive agency [see Corporation for National Service]

B) Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) / Independent Regulatory Commission

C) Department of War/ Department of Navy / Department of Post Office / Cabinet

D) Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) / Cabinet

E) Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) / Government Corporation

F) Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) / Independent Regulatory Commission