I) Federal Bureaucracy

A) Bureaucracy: large and complex. Employees with specific job responsibilities within†††

a hierarchy. (p. 321)

a) Political appointees: people appointed by President to positions. Occupies

††††††††††††††††††††††††††† strategic government positions. (p. 323)

††††††††††† b) Cabinet: official advisory board to President. Has 14 heads of each department. (p. 323)

††††††††††††††††††††††† c) Patronage: getting jobs through connections, not necessarily through ability. (p. 323)

††††††††††† d) Spoils system: all go to winner's party. (p. 323)

B) Merit System: merit used to gain office rather than background/connections. (p. 324)

††††††††††††††††††††††† a) Pendleton Act: First merit based personnel system made. (p. 324)

b) General Civil Service System: merit system covering white collar & technical

††† jobs. (p. 324)

c) Senior Executive Service(SES): highest employment category. Specializes in

†† managing agencies. (p. 324)

C) Wage Systems: blue collar job system. Represented by unions. (p. 325)

D) Job of Bureaucracy:

a) To implement policies of federal government. (p. 325)

b) Proxy administration: Things government uses to carry out government programs. (p. 326)

1)     Government contracts (For example: contracts by Defense to build weapons)

2)     Grant-in-aid (For example: grants for schools)

3)     Loan guarantee

4)     Establishment of government-sponsored enterprises

E) Where federal civil servants work:

††††††††††††††††††††††† a) EOP: Executive Office of President help/advise President. (p. 327)

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1) Office of Management & Budget(OMB): is a link to most of the other agencies. (p. 327)

2) White House Office(WHO): Has Presidentís key advisors/assistants. (p. 327)

††††††††††† b) Cabinet departments: has smaller units called bureaus. (p. 330)

c) Independent agencies: 200+ agencies. Independent of EOP and Cabinet. (p. 330)

d) Regulatory Commission: agency by president appointed boards. Deals with

††† economic policies. (p. 331)

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1) Quasi-legislative function: authorized by Congress to make laws. (p. 332)†††††††

2) Quasi-judicial: can hold hearings of rule violators. Decisions can be

††† appealed.(p. 332)

††††††††††† e) Government corporation: carryout specific economic/service functions. For

††† ††††††††††††example: USPS for mail. (p. 332)



II) Growth of American Bureaucracy

A) Expanded in response to conditions in society. (p. 334)

B) Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA): oversee regulation of workplace conditions. (p. 338)

C) Bureaucratic power: government power from law, support, expertise, time in office, skill, leadership etc. (p. 338)

D) Militias: against growth of government power. (p. 338)



III) Sources of Bureaucratic Power:

A)     External: outside the agencies. From general public, special interest groups, media,

†††† Congress, White House. (p. 339)

a) Policy sub-governments: political alliances, interest groups, some Congress

††† members. (p. 340)

1) Cozy triangles: sub-government groups being powerful coalitions.

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Low public profile, few members. (p. 340)

2) Issue networks: opposite from triangles. Large group with different

††† degrees of interest/commitment to policies/problems. These interests††

††† bring them together. (p. 340)

b) Expertise: competence in doing their job. (p. 341)

††††††††††† c) Discretion: using own judgment to carry out policies. (p. 342)

††††††††††† d) Length in office (p. 342)

†††††††††† e) Skill/leadership (p. 342)

B) Limiting bureaucratic power

††††††††††† a) Self-restraint/limit their resources. (p. 343)

††††††††††††††††††††††† b) White House: choosing people that will be loyal to the one in office. (p. 343)

††††††††††† c) Congress: with its mandates, legislation. (p. 344)

††††††††††† d) Courts: (p. 345)

††††††††††† e) Other restraints:

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 1) Whistle-blowers: risk careers, report corruption/waste. (p. 346)

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 2) Inspector general: investigates complaints/suspicious behavior. (p. 346)



IV) Bureaucratic Problems/Reforms:

A) Bureaucratic pathologies: bureau behavior that feed myths of incompetence. (p. 347)

††††††††††† 1) Clientelism: serving public that a program is created for. (p. 357)

††††††††††† 2) Incrementalism: moving cautiously and slowly when carrying out programs. (p. 347)

††††††††††† 3) Arbitrariness: to do its business effectively/efficiently through

†††††††††† ††††††††††††††††Standard Operating Procedures(SOPs): regularized procedures. (p. 348)

††††††††††† 4) Parochialism: concentration in getting the job done. (p. 349)

††††††††††† 5) Imperialism: expanding agency operations and taking on more responsibilities. (p. 349)

B) Calls for reform

††††††††††† 6) Privatization: work of government turned to private sector. (p. 351)

7) Ombudsman: has person in agency who's responsible for hearing complaints

††† related to programs/policies. (p. 351)

8) Reinventing government: empowerment/decentralization of government in order

††† to enhance performance of government agencies and programs. (p. 352)







Each agency under the executive branch enforces laws passed by Congress by enacting rules and regulations. Agencies are funded by Congress and are usually created by Congress.


I) EOP: EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT: appointments solely at the president's, discretion does not require Senate approval, serve until removed by the president


1) WHO: White House Office - closest advisors/speech writers

2) OMB: Office of Management & Budget - drafts budget; manages spending

3) NSC: National Security Council - advises on national security/foreign policy




II) CABINET DEPARTMENTS:each except Justice, headed by a secretary. Appointments have Senate approval. Serve until removed by President.


1) USDA: Department of Agriculture: certifies meat/poultry/eggs/manages national††† forests

††††††††††† a) Forest Service: support services within national forests. Help against wildfires.

2) DOC: Department of Commerce: interstate/international commerce.

††††††††††† a) Census Bureau: conducts the Census/statistics

3) DOD: Department of Defense: national security, defense, research, gathers intelligence

4) DoEd: Department of Education: education standards. formerly HEW, financial aid.

5) DOE: Department of Energy: researches forms of energy/national security by reducing WMD

6) HHS: Department of Health and Human Services: health services. formerly HEW.

††††††††††† a) FDA: Food and Drug Administration: approves food, drugs for public use

b) CDC: Centers For Disease Control: detects, prevents, and documents disease

††† outbreaks

††††††††††† c) PHS: Public Health Service: National Institute For Health: gives out vaccines/public health information

7) HUD: Department of Housing and Urban Development: housing standards. affordable housing,††

††††††††††††† financing.

8) DOI: Department of the Interior: manages federal lands

a) NPS: National Park Service: provides support services and rules in national parks

b) BIA: Bureau of Indian Affairs: services for Native Americans(ie job training/health care)

c) BLM: Bureau of Land Management: land title information, regulates use of federal

††† lands. To help fight wildfires.

9) DOJ: Department of Justice: arrests, prosecutes, incarcerates

††††††††††† a) FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigationinvestigates federal crimes

b) INS: Immigration and Naturalization Service: processes/naturalizes legal immigrants.

††† Border Patrol.

c) DEA: Drug Enforcement Administration:gathers intelligence, monitors sale of††

††† chemicals for drugs

††††††††††† d) BOP: Bureau of Prisons: manages federal prisons

10) DOL: Department of Labor: labor laws, protects workers rights

a) BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics: data on employment, unemployment, work related

††† injury.

b) OSHA: Occupational Safety and Hazard Administration: investigates work related†††

††† accidents.

11) DOS: Department of State: promotes U.S. policy abroad

a) Foreign Service: manages foreign embassy personnel representing the U.S. abroad.

12) DOT: Department of Transportation:regulates all modes of transportation

a) U.S. Coast Guard: [in time of war is part of Department of Defense] rescue services,

††† drug interdiction.

††††††††††† b) FAA: Federal Aviation Administration: certifies pilots, monitors use of airspace

13) Department of Treasury:handles government finances

a) BATF: Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms: regulates alcohol/tobacco/firearms

††† industries.

b) USCS: Customs Service: drugs, collects revenue, prevents intellectual property rights

††† violations.

c) Secret Service [EPS]: provides executive protection, investigates counterfeit currency,

d) IRS: Internal Revenue Service: collects revenue, investigates tax fraud and evasion†††††††

14) Department of Veterans Affairs: health care/rehabilitation/homeless assistance, job training for veterans.




III) REGULATORY COMMISSIONS: headed by governing boards appointed by president. Approved by Senate. Service long fixed terms.


1) CPSC: Consumer Product Safety Commission: issues standards/recalls. gives public consumer education.

2) Civil Rights Commission: investigates, issue laws, reports findings to president/Congress,

3) EEOC: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: investigates charges of civil rights

†† violations.

4) FCC: Federal Communications Commission: regulates radio, television broadcasting & cable communication.

5) FEC: Federal Election Commission: enforces FECA regulations about campaign finance

6) FMC: Federal Maritime Commission: licenses/investigates maritime (shipping) industries

7) FPC: Federal Power Commission: licenses shipment of power(ie natural gas, through interstate pipelines).

8) FRB: Federal Reserve Board: oversees the Federal Reserve System, regulates banks

9) FTC: Federal Trade Commission: promotes consumer protection, regulates advertising practices.

10) NLRB: National Labor Relations Board:New Deal mediates between labor unions and employers.

11) NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission: regulates nuclear power plants(ie transport, research, disposal).

12) SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission: New Deal, registers securities transacts, sets market conditions.




IV) GOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS: government-owned. Sell services/products. headed by governing boards appointed by the president. Approved by the Senate. Service long fixed terms.


1) CPB: Corporation for Public Broadcasting: funding for public Television, and radio

2) CNS: Corporation for National Service: organizes public interest in volunteer service

3) FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: New Deal, passes regulations, insures accounts to $100K.

4) TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority: New Deal, provides power, is the nations largest provider

5) USPS: United States Postal Service: provides mail service, investigates mail fraud



V) INDEPENDENTAGENCIES/ SINGLE PURPOSE AGENCIES: headed by an appointed administrator approved by the Senate. Service is until removal by the president.


1) CIA: Central Intelligence Agency: intelligence gathering, ensures national security

2) EPA: Environmental Protection Agency: researches, enforces and enacts regulations protecting the environment

3) FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency: provides disaster relief, includingloans and reconstruction services

4) GSA: General Services Administration: facilities maintenance and other to federal agencies

5) NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration: space research

6) NCUA: National Credit Union Administration: supervises, regulates federal credit unions

7) NTSB: National Transportation and Safety Board: investigates accidents, and safety questions

8) OPM: Office of Personnel Management: provides human resource services for the government

9) SSS: Selective Service System: to recruit pool of manpower for the military in times of war

10) SBA: Small Business Administration: support for small businesses through loans, advice, and training; includes:

††††††††††† SCORE†† -†† ACE-Net

11) SSA: Social Security Administration: New Deal [includes Medicare program begun under the

1) Great Society(by LB. Johnson): created by the Depression-era Social Security Act; issues social security

††† numbers, pays benefits to retirees.





A) ACTION/ Independent Executive agency [see Corporation for National Service]

B) Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) / Independent Regulatory Commission

C) Department of War/ Department of Navy / Department of Post Office / Cabinet

D) Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) / Cabinet

E) Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) / Government Corporation

F) Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) / Independent Regulatory Commission