Chapter 11 (Pages 269-289)

Each agency under the executive branch enforces laws passed by Congress by enacting rules and regulations.
Agencies are funded by Congress and are usually created by Congress.

EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT (EOP) SB273/ appointments solely at the president’s, discretion does not require Senate approval; serve until removed by the president. 

The White House Office (WHO) *INFO /SB 261, 262, 273/ president’s closest advisors and speech writers 

Office of Management & Budget (OMB) *INFO / SB 239-240, 260- 262, 273, 284 / drafts budget; manages spending 

National Security Council (NSC) *INFO / SB 261, 262, 273/ advises on national security and foreign policy


CABINET DEPARTMENTS SB 273-275/ each department except the Department of Justice, headed by a secretary. Appointments require Senate approval. Serve until removed by president. 

Department of Agriculture (USDA) *INFO SB274, 287 / certifies farm products; manages national forests

-- Forest Service  *INFO/ SB 274/ support services within national forests

Department of Commerce (DOC) *INFO /SB 274/ interstate and international commerce, compiles statistics

-- Bureau of the Census *INFO / SB274 conducts the Census every ten years, compiles statistics

-- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) / SB273

Department of Defense  (DOD, “the Pentagon”) *INFO / SB274/ national security, defense, research, gathers intelligence

-- National Security Agency/ SB274

-- Departments of the Air Force, Army Navy / SB274


Department of Education (DoEd) *INFO / SB275, 288/ formerly HEW, provides financial aid to students, sets educational. standards

Department of Energy (DOE) *INFO / SB275/ researches energy and WMD/ national security

Department of Health and Human Services (HHS*INFO / SB275/ formerly HEW, health related research and  services
-- Food and Drug Administration (FDA) *INFO approves food, drugs for public use
-- Centers For Disease Control (CDC) *INFO detects, prevents, and documents disease outbreaks
-- National Institutes of Health (NIH) *INFO / distributes vaccines, provides health information                                                                                                                      Public Health Service (PHS) *INFO / SB275

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)  *INFO/ SB 272, 274, 275/ Attempts to prevents terrorists attacks within the US, control US borders, and minimizes damage from natural disasters

-- U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) *INFO/ SB 275/ previously in the Department of Transportation; becomes part of the Department of Defense in times of war

-- Secret Service [EPS] *INFO / SB 275/ provides executive protection, investigates counterfeit currency

-- Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)*INFO / SB 274 top, 275, 276-277

-- U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (CIS) *INFO/ SB 275

-- U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) *INFO

-- U.S. Customs and Immigration Enforcement (ICE) *INFO

Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) *INFO / financing affordable housing, sets housing standards

Department of the Interior (DOI) *INFO / SB 274/ manages federal lands

-- National Park Service (NPS) *INFO / SB274/ provides support services and rules in national parks

-- Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) *INFO / SB274/ provides services--job training and health care-- for Native Americans,

-- Bureau of Land Management (BLM) *INFO / SB274/ land title information, regulates use of federal lands

Department of Justice (DOJ) *INFO/ SB274/ arrests, prosecutes, incarcerates

-- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) *INFO / SB274/ investigates federal crimes

-- Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) *INFO / SB274/ gathers intelligence, monitors sale of chemicals used for drugs

-- Bureau of Prisons (BOP) *INFO / SB274/ manages federal prisons


Department of Labor (DOL) *INFO / SB274/ enforces labor laws, protects workers rights

-- Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) *INFO / SB274/ statistical data on employment, unemployment, work related injury

-- Occupational Safety and Hazard Administration (OSHA) *INFO / SB274/ investigates work related accidents

Department of State (DOS) *INFO / SB274/ promotes U.S. policy abroad

--Foreign Service  *INFO / SB274/ manages foreign embassy personnel representing the U.S. abroad

Department of Transportation (DOT) *INFO / regulates all modes of transportation

Department of Treasury *INFO/ SB274/ handles government finances

-- Internal Revenue Service (IRS) *INFO / SB274/ collects revenue, investigates tax fraud and evasion

Department of Veterans Affairs * INFO / provides health care, rehabilitation, homeless assistance, job training for veterans


INDEPENDENT EXECUTIVE AGENCIES / SB 274-275/ these agencies are headed by an appointed administrator whose appointment must be approved by the Senate; service is until removal by the president 

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) *INFO / SB90, 283, 356 complete/ intelligence gathering, ensures national security

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) *INFO / SB 274, 327/ researches, enforces and enacts regulations protecting the environment, including air and water quality

Office of Personnel Management (OPM) *INFO /SB 280/ provides human resource services for the government

Selective Service System (SSS) *INFO / SB 288/ system to recruit a pool of manpower for the military in times of war

Social Security Administration (SSA) *INFO / SB 86, 283, 288/ New Deal [includes Medicare and Medicaid/Medi-Cal] created by the Depression-era Social Security Act; issues social security numbers, pays benefits to retirees and others.


INDEPENDENT REGULATORY AGENCIES / SB 275-277 agencies headed by governing boards whose members are appointed by the president, and approved by the Senate. Members serve for long fixed terms and usually cannot be removed.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) *INFO / SB 84, 85, 275/ regulates radio, television broadcasting and cable communication

Federal Election Commission (FEC) *INFO / SB 180-181, 195/ enforces regulations about campaign finance

Federal Trade Commission (FTC) *INFO / SB284/ promotes consumer protection, regulates advertising practices

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) *INFO / SB 275/ regulates nuclear power plants, including transport, research, disposal


GOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS / SB 277-278/ these government-owned corporations sell services or products and are headed by governing boards whose members are appointed by the president, approved by the Senate. Service for long fixed terms.

Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) [PBS/NPR] / SB 142 end*INFO / funding for public television and radio

United States Postal Service (USPS) *INFO / SB 221f top, 278f/ provides mail service, investigates mail fraud



ACTION / Independent Executive agency

Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) / Federal Regulatory Agency

Department of War / Department of Navy / Department of Post Office / Cabinet

Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) / Cabinet

Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) / Government Corporation

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) / Federal Regulatory Agency

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) / Department of Justice

US Customs Service (USCS) / SB 275/ Department of Treasury