CHAPTER 15 FOREIGN AND DEFENSE POLICY(LEE)
Axis- The countries that fought the allies signed the Tripartite Act, which included Germany, Japan, and Italy. This created the Tokyo-Berlin-Rome Axis in 1940.
Berlin Wall- Albright articulated a vision for U.S. foreign policy that stressed the creation of the new world order that President Bush and others had talked about when the wall fell. It was the economic dimensions of foreign affairs that formed the core of the Clinton policies.
Cold War- International situation between 1947-1980s that raged: the democracies” of the West against the “totalitarian regimes” of the East. End of the war reduced anxiety that had been felt during the forty years as the threat of nuclear war. Policymakers were looking forward to sharp cutbacks in military spending that would generate a huge budgetary “peace dividend” that could be used to solve social problems. Post WWII period characterized by ideological and policy confrontations between the American-led West and the Soviet-led East.
Containment- Soviet Union was not seeking immediate victories.
Détente- Relaxation of tensions between nations. Became the name for President Nixon’s policy of taking a more cooperative approach in dealing with Soviet bloc nations while enhancing U.S. security arrangements with its allies.
Domino Theory- Idea current during the Cold War that justified U.S. support of South Vietnam against invasion by communism North Vietnam. The domino theory was that if one southeast Asian state went communist, other countries would have to follow giving the communists much greater influence.
Foreign Aid- Assistance provided by the U.S. to another country. Takes the form of grants/money/supplies, but low-interest loan.
Glasnost- Mikhail Gorbachev (leader of the Soviet Union) began glasnost, open political debate and criticism, and started perestroika, which was encouraging individual enterprises and decentralizing administration to stimulate the economy.
Internationalism- Belief that the greatest possible cooperation between nations in trade, culture, education, government is the best way to build peace.
Iran Contra-Affair- Secret agreement in the 1980s to provide funds to the Nicaraguan contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to Iran. The Iran Contra-Affair was the product of two separate initiatives during the administration of President Ronald Reagan.
Isolationism- Policymakers attempted to maintain American neutrality and to avoid any direct involvement in European affairs that might have dragged the new nation into commitments that would have made it politically or militarily vulnerable.
League of Nations- Help created by Wilson in writing the treaty to end the war. Designed to be a permanent peacetime international security organization.
Marshall Plan- In June 1947, the Marshall Plan was put into effect in order to stop the Russians from influencing any of the weakened western powers. The U.S. had sent massive economic aid to Europe democracies to help them rebuild. Billions of dollars were spent to help countries recover quickly and to reduce the influence of Communism. This plan helped to restore West Germany and rebuild it as a new ally in America’s fight against Russia. Russia refused the aid of the Marshall Plan and, as a result, East Germany was not completely rebuilt. The German economy after reunification took a big hit because it had to pay for all the reconstruction that the Communists never did.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)- 1949 treaty tying U.S. security interests to those of Western European and other member nations.
Truman Doctrine- A plan to help states going through a struggle for freedom against their oppressors, which was in 1948. President Truman said, “I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” The Truman Doctrine instituted a policy of containment. Communism would be limited only to areas already under Soviet control, and Americans would resist Soviet expansion everywhere else.
U.N.- December 7, 1988, Gorbachev announces to a meeting of the United Nations that Russia would unilaterally reduce its armed forces by half a million troops and withdraw and disband six tank divisions from East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary.
WWI- Between 1914-1917, American policymakers faced growing pressures to enter WWI, but the isolationist pressure remained so strong that President Wilson ran for re-election (1916) using the slogan “He kept us out of war!” America should not get involved unless its own security was threatened.
DMZ/Demilitarized Zone- (1994) U.S. and North Korea came to an agreement in which a nuclear power plant would be built and fuel oil in exchange for the North ceasing construction of an old style nuclear power plant. Along the zone, 1.5 million soldiers face each other (37,000 being U.S. soldiers).
El Salvador- In Central America, peace were being brought to a successful conclusion.
Guatemala- President Eisenhower helped overthrow the government of President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman (1954) when Guatemala started to import Soviet Union weapons.
Gulf of Tonkin- (1954) Vietcong (Pro-communist forces) received indirect support from China and the Soviet Union. Congress and the president agreed in the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1963) to self-defense and control of aggression by communist North Vietnam against the U.S.
Haiti, Panama, Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq- American troops found themselves conducting missions where civil strife was creating humanitarian crises.
Hiroshima/Nagasaki- U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia- Shortly after the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, the Baltic States of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia won independence from the USSR in 1991.
North Korea- “Rogue” state that wants access to Soviet weaponry or develop their own nuclear capabilities.
Persian Gulf- Bush administration would give preference to multinational joint operations when military action was required.
Aquino- President Maria Corazon Aquino (Philippines) served while Bush was president during the Cold War. The Philippines received U.S. aid.
Chiang Kai-Shek- Chiang fled to Formosa (Taiwan) in 1950 where he became president of the Republic of China (ROC). Reason to his departure to Taiwan was the taking over of China under dictator Mao-Tse-Tung in 1949.
Fidel Castro- Overthrew dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959. President Eisenhower ended his term with Cuba breaking up diplomatic relations.
Gorbachev- Leader of the Soviet Union in 1985 created a situation that even hard-line cold warriors in the Reagan administration could not ignore.
Ho Chi Minh- Between 1964-1973, nearly 9 million American military personnel served in Vietnam. About 47,355 Americans died in the Vietnam conflict. Costs proved too great for the American public, and the U.S. was forced to withdraw from Vietnam in 1975 as North Vietnamese troops entered Vietnam’s capital, Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City).
Khomeini- Ayatolla Ruhollah Khomeini, a revered religious leader back from exile in France, seized the embassy in Teheran and demanded the surrender of the shah and his possessions as exchange for American hostages. In 1980, President Carter sent a rescue team but the aircraft crashed and the stalemate continued with hostages still in Iran.
Mussolini/Fascist Party/Italy- Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943. He centralized all power in himself as the leader of the Fascist part and attempted to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler’s Germany. The defeat of Italian arms in WWII brought an end to his imperial dream and led to his downfall.
Stalin- Stalin maintained that his program of consolidating “socialism in one country” although demanding immense sacrifice and discipline, would render the USSR immune to attacks by capitalist nations and would demonstrate the superiority of the social system.