Interest Groups (Pressure Groups) Study Guide .2


A:            Definitions and Introduction (p.812)


A1.          Pressure Groups

A2.          Government decision-makers to benefit their members

A3.          For their support

A4.          Similar ideas

A5.          Pressure government to meet their demands

A6.          Make or break an election


B:            Factors Encouraging the Formation of Interest groups in the U.S. (p. 812)


B1.          Interest Groups

B2.          Specialization

B3.          Changes in campaign finance laws and reforms

B4.          Appeal to different interest groups

B5.          Legislative, Executive, and Judicial

B6.          Court decisions or lobby the senate

B7.          Strongest and best organized

B8.          School districts, special districts, cities and counties


C:            Methods/Techniques of Lobbying (p. 812)


C1.          Lobbying

C2.          Meetings, telephone calls, mail, fax and e-mail

C3.          Campaign by funds, loans and volunteering

C4.          Run for public office

C5.          Publicizing


D:            Forms of Direct Action (p.812)


D1.          Use direct action

D2.          March, Rally, Protest, Demonstration

D3.          Picketing, Boycotting, Strikes

D4.          Force negotiations or gain sympathy from media or other interest groups

D5.          Civil Disobedience

D6.          Direct, Indirect

D7.          Indirect

E:            Measuring Public Opinion/Polling (p.813)


E1.           To be responsive to citizens

E2.           Telephone

E3.           Random Sample

E4.           Tracking

E5.           Schematic Thinking

E6.           Bias

E7.           Story Placement or Headline Size

E8.           So Bias does not occur, questions do not lead to an expected answer

E9.           Statement of how accurate a number or measurement is.


F:            Propaganda Techniques (p.813)


F1.           Propaganda

F2.           1 Viewpoint

F3.           Bandwagon, Positive or Negative Words, Plain Folks, Testimonial, Card Stacking

F4.           Bandwagon

F5.           Plain Folks

F6.           Positive or Negative Words

F7.           Testimonial

F8.           Card Stacking


G:            Types of Interest Groups and their Purposes (p.810, 811)


G1.          AFBF                                                                         G41.            Ralph Nader

G2.          AFBF, National Grange                                           G42.            Students Against Driving Drunk

G3.          NFA, NFO, NFU                                                       G43.            Ellen Malcolm

G4.          National Farmers Union                                          G44.            National Organization for Women

G5.          NFA, NFO, NFU                                                       G45.            Democratic

G6.          Republicans                                                              G46.            Protect women's rights

G7.          U.S. Chamber of Commerce

G8.          American Bankers Association

G9.          Republicans

G10.        National Association of Manufacturers

G11.        AFT, CFT, UTLA, CTA, NEA

G12.        Democratic

G13.        American Federation of Teachers

G14.        National Education Association

G15.        California Federation of Teachers

G16.        EDF

G17.        Environmental Defense Fund

G18.        Democratic

G19.        Cesar E. Chavez

G20.        American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organization

G21.        United Farm Workers

G22.        Democratic

G23.        International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

G24.        ABA, AICPA, AMA, ANA

G25.        American Medical Association

G26.        ABA, AMA, AICPA 

G27.        American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

G28.        American Nurses Association

G29.        ANA

G30.        Anti-Defamation League

G31.        Martin Luther King

G32.        American Indian Movement

G33.        Pat Robertson

G34.        National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

G35.        Jesse Jackson

G36.        Candy Lightner

G37.        American Civil Liberties Union

G38.        National Rifle Association

G39.        ACLU, NRA

G40.        Mothers Against Drunk Driving