Growth of the Presidency

Washington (p. 286)

_          General

_          First president [under Constitution] (1789)

Adams (p. 287 center)

_          Federalist

_          Lost to Jefferson, leader of Jeffersonians

Jefferson (p. 287 end)

_          Defeated Adams [first peaceful party transition]

_          Jeffersonians [Democratic-Republicans] became the modern Democrats

Lincoln (“savior” of the country) (p. 288)

_          Republican

_          Issued Emancipation Proclamation [during the Civil War, that ended slavery]

Franklin D. Roosevelt (p. 289)

--          Confronted Great Depression in 1945 (p. 310)


The House impeaches while the Senate tries.  Clinton and Andrew Johnson were the only two presidents to be impeached, but neither was convicted. 


The president heads the executive branch at the federal level.  FDR gave the office the power it now has by confronting the Great Depression and WWII (p. 289-291). There was increased authority in the 1960's (p. 290). One example is Nixon with secret bombings in Cambodia and the Watergate Scandal (p. 290). Another example is Lyndon B. Johnson escalading the unpopular war in Southeast Asia (p. 290), which expanded under his Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (p. 298)


Presidential Roles (pp. 291-302)                                                        

The president plays five key roles:

·                       Chief of State

·                       Chief Executive

·                       Chief Diplomat

·                       Commander in Chief

·                       Chief Legislator


As Chief of State the president entertains foreign dignitaries and prominent Americans, and carries out other ceremonial duties that enhance prestige of office (p. 292).


As Chief Executive the president has three key powers:

·                       Power to appoint

·                       Power to remove

·                       Power to pardon

·                       Power to exercise executive privilege.(p. 292) 


Executive privilege is the right to withhold information from the legislature.  Nixon Administration attempted to use it in the Watergate Tapes Case, U.S. v. Nixon:  The Watergate special prosecutor requested tape recordings, President refused, which led to the 1974 case of United States v. Nixon (p. 294). 


As Chief Diplomat the president makes treaties, receives foreign ambassadors and ministers, and nominates and appoints ambassadors, ministers, and consuls with advice and consent of the Senate (p. 294).  Also, the president can make executive agreements with other nations without the Senates’ consent (p. 295)  Power of recognition is the power to receive foreign ambassadors and ministers such as when the first President Bush gave recognition to Russia when the Soviet Union broke up [after the end of the Cold War in 1989]. (p. 296)


As Commander in Chief the president commands the troops while Congress alone makes the decision to go to war. (p. 296). Foreign Involvement (p. 291):

·                       Truman: South Korea (p. 297)

·                       Reagan: Iran-Contra Affair

·                       First Bush: Panama

·                       First Bush: Iraq

·                       Clinton: NAFTA


As Chief Legislator, the president  has four legislative duties and the veto power;  to convene Congress, to adjourn Congress if two Houses cannot agree on adjournment,  “from time to time give Congress Information on the State of the Union,” and to recommend measures, and also gives President the right to veto (p. 300)


The Veto Power (p. 300-302)

Once President receives bill he may:


A. Do something:


1. Sign bill within ten days (bill becomes law)


2. Return bill to Congress/veto (possible override by 2/3 vote of Congress)


3. Item veto/line-item veto (ruled unconstitutional at federal level, [but allowed to some governors])


B. Do nothing:


4. Allow a bill to become law without signature after ten days while Congress is in session


5. Pocket veto of a bill sent to the President within last ten days of Congress’ session



The Bureaucracy: The Executive Office of the President


Executive order is the rule or regulation used by the President that has the effect of law.  FDR used executive order to create the Executive Office of the President (EOP), which includes:

·                       Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

·                       The White House Office (WHO) 

·                       National Security Council (NSC) (p. 306) 


The Office of Management and Budget helps prepare and control a budget for each fiscal year.(p. 306)  The National Security Council advises president on foreign and defense policy.  It includes president, vice-president, secretary of state, secretary of defense  (p. 307) and the special assistant for national security advisor also known as the national security advisor. (P. 308)


The Vice-President is provided with only the role as Senatorial president in the Constitution and only votes to break a tie vote (p. 309).


The Cabinet  was created by Washington and consists of 14 departments all headed by secretaries with the exception of the Department of Justice, which is headed by the attorney general. ( p. 329 center, 14 boxes)