Page 824K†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††† Page 824




Each agency under the executive branch enforces laws passed by Congress by enacting rules and regulations.

Agencies are funded by Congress and are usually created by Congress.



EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT (EOP) pp. 185f, 185-192/ appointments solely at the presidentís, discretion does not require Senate approval, serve until removed by the president


The White House Office (WHO) pp. 184-185, 191-192, S 92/ presidentís closest advisors and speech writers


Office of Management & Budget (OMB) former Bureau of Budget, pp. 171, 185-7, 230 S78, S154/ drafts budget; manages spending


National Security Council (NSC) pp. 187-188, 463, 466-467, S219/ advises on national security and foreign policy



CABINET DEPARTMENTS pp.209F, 214F, 221F, 220-223, S11/ each department except the Department of Justice, headed by a secretary. Appointments require Senate approval. Serve until removed by president


Department of Agriculture (USDA) / certifies meat, poultry, eggs, manages national forests

††††††††††††††† Forest Service / support services within national forests

Department of Commerce (DOC) S107/ interstate and international commerce, compiles statistics

††††††††††††††† Census Bureau p. 114, S122/ conducts the Census every ten years, compiles statistics

Department of Defense (DOD) S228/ national security, defense, research, gathers intelligence

Department of Education (DoEd) S62/ formerly HEW, financial aid, sets standards for education

Department of Energy (DOE) S62-64, 74/ researches forms of energy, national security by reducing WMD

Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)S81, 87, 91, 154/ formerly HEW , health services

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) p. 223F, 224, S85, 91, 93/ approves food, drugs for public use

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) pp. S83, 97/ detects, prevents, and documents disease outbreaks

††††††††††††††† National Institutes for Health (NIH) / researches diseases, provides grants for medical research

††††††††††††††† Public Health Service (PHS) / distributes vaccines, provide public health information

Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)/ affordable housing, financing, sets housing standards

Department of the Interior (DOI) p.214F/ manage federal lands, parks

††††††††††††††† National Park Service (NPS) / provides support services in national parks

††††††††††††††† Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) / services for Native Americans, job training, mediation between tribes

††††††††††††††† Bureau of Land Management (BLM) p. 214/ land title information, regulates use of federal lands

Department of Justice (DOJ) pp. 202, 219-220, 232, 237 S15, 49, 109,110,119,121-2/ arrests, prosecutes, incarcerates

††††††††††††††† Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI) S108/ investigates federal crimes

††††††††††††††† Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) S15, 19,21/ processes and naturalizes legal immigrants

††††††††††††††† Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)/ gathers intelligence, monitors sale of precursor chemicals

††††††††††††††† Bureau of Prisons (BOP) / manages federal prisons

Department of Labor (DOL)/ labor laws, protects workers rights

††††††††††††††† Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) / statistical data on employment, unemployment, work related injury

Office of Federal Contract compliance (OFCCP) / investigates federal contractors

Occupational Safety and Hazard Administration (OSHA)/ Not Cal-OSHA , investigates work related accidents

Department of State (DOS) S232, 225,228/ promotes U.S. policy abroad

††††††††††††††† Foreign Service pp.217-18/ manages foreign embassy personnel representing the U.S. abroad

Department of Transportation (DOT) / regulates all modes of transportation

††††††††††††††† U.S. Coast Guard / [in time of war is part of Department of Defense] rescue services, drug interdiction

National Transportation and Safety Board (NTSB) / investigates accidents, and safety questions

††††††††††††††† Surface Transportation Board (STB) / regulates interstate surface transportation

††††††††††††††† Urban Mass Transit Administration (UMTA) / regulates all mass transit projects

††††††††††††††† Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) p.223F/ certifies pilots, monitors use of airspace

Department of Treasury S18/ handles government finances

††††††††††††††† Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) / regulates the alcohol, tobacco and firearms industries

††††††††††††††† Customs Service (USCS) / drug interdiction, collects revenue, prevents iIntellectual property rights violations

††††††††††††††† Secret Service [EPS]/ provides executive protection, investigates counterfeit currency,

††††††††††††††† Internal Revenue Service (IRS) / collects revenue, investigates tax fraud and evasion

Department of Veterans Affairs/ provides health care, rehabilitation, homeless assistance, job training for veterans











Page 825K†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††† Page 825K



INDEPENDENT REGULATORY COMMISSIONS pp. 209, 223-224[I.C.C. was the first]/ these commissions are headed by governing boards whose members are appointed by the president, approved by the Senate. Service for long fixed terms.


Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)/ P.223F/ issues standards, issues recalls, gives public consumer education

Civil Rights Commission / investigates, issue laws, reports findings to president and Congress,

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)/ p. 223F/ investigates charges of civil rights violations

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)/ p. 223F, S73, 87/ regulates radio, television broadcasting and cable communication

Federal Election Commission (FEC)/ S105, 109, 111, 120, 122,132/ enforces FECA regulations about campaign finance

Federal Maritime Commission (FMC)/ licenses and investigates maritime (shipping) industries

Federal Power Commission (FPC) p. 223F/ licenses shipment of power, including natural gas, through interstate pipelines

Federal Reserve Board (FRB) p. 223F/ oversees the Federal Reserve System, regulates banks

Federal Trade Commission (FTC), esp. S86, 91,92,104/ promotes consumer protection, regulates advertising practices

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)/ p. 223F/ New Deal mediates between labor unions and employers

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)/ regulates nuclear power plants, including transport, research, disposal

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) p.223F/ New Deal, registers securities transactions, sets market conditions


GOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS pp.222-223]/ these government-owned corporations sell services or products and are headed by governing boards whose members are appointed by the president, approved by the Senate. Service for long fixed terms.

Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) [PBS/NPR] /funding for public Television, and radio

Corporation for National Service (CNS) / organizes public interest in volunteer service

††††††††††††††† [Americorps-including VISTA]

††††††††††††††† [National Senior Service Corps-RSVP and Foster Grandparents Program]

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)/ New Deal, passes regulations, insure accounts up to $100,000.00

National Railroad Passenger Corporation (AMTRAK/NRPC) [1-800-USA-RAIL]

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)/ New Deal, provides power, is the nations largest provider

United States Postal Service (USPS) [1-800-ASK-USPS] p.222/ provides mail service, investigates mail fraud


OTHER INDEPENDENT EXECUTIVE AGENCIES/ SINGLE PURPOSE AGENCIES p.222/ these agencies are headed by an appointed administrator whose appointment must be approved by the Senate; service is until removal by the president


*Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) P. 188/ intelligence gathering, ensures national security (reports its budget only to the President)

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/ researches, enforces and enacts regulations protecting the environment

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)[FIA / FCIP, 1-800-638-8780]/ provides disaster relief, loans, reconstruction,

General Services Administration (GSA)/ provides support services to other federal agencies, workspace, vehicles

National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA)/ conducts research into space exploration, manages space program through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California

National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) compare with other NEA, pp.103-104, S72/ provides grants for art projects

National Credit Union Administration (NCUA)/ supervises, regulates federal credit unions

Office of Personnel Management (OPM) (Former Civil Service Commission) p.222/ provides human resource services for the government

Peace Corps/ International volunteer organization

Selective Service System (SSS) p.114/ system to recruit a pool of manpower for the military in times of war

Small Business Administration (SBA) [ACE /SCORE-]

provides support for small businesses through loans, advice, and training

Social Security Administration (SSA) )/ New Deal [includes Medicare program begun under Great Society] S172-173 Case Study 14: Welfare-Social Security Act, S165 AFDC, SSA S171-173/ issues social security numbers, pays benefits to retirees




Action/ Independent Executive agency [see Corporation for National Service]

Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB)/ Independent Regulatory Commission

Department of War/ Department of Navy/ Department of Post Office/ Cabinet

Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW)/Cabinet S61

Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) / Government Corporation

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)/ Independent Regulatory Commission

[See STB under Department of Transportation]