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Page 821

 

CHAPTER 4:  CIVIL LIBERTIES AND CIVIL RIGHTS (JV30)

Ross, Pages 93-118 Gitelson Pages 90-125

 

KEY DATES

              1789:  UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION GOES INTO EFFECT;

                         GEORGE WASHINGTON IS INAUGURATED FIRST PRESIDENT UNDER IT;

                         BILL OF  RIGHTS IS  WRITTEN BY JAMES MADISON

 

             1865:  CIVIL WAR ENDS;  ABRAHAM LINCOLN IS ASSASSINATED;

                        THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT OUTLAWS SLAVERY AS AN ECONOMIC

                          SYSTEM, BUT JIM CROW LAWS REPLACE IT

 

             1954:  BROWN v. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA, KANSAS OVERTURNS

                         PLESSY v FERGUSON  (1896) AND BEGINS THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

 

SOURCES OF CIVIL LIBERTIES AND CIVIL RIGHTS

                A.   In the Constitution as it was originally written (p. 96, top three bulleted items)

                                1.  Guarantee of the right to a writ of habeas corpus (G 42)

                                2.  Prohibition of ex post facto laws (G 42)

3.   Prohibition of bills of attainder (G 42)

 

Also know three Constitutional provisions to protect slavery--see p. 837, bottom line

               

B.   In the Bill of Rights (as incorporated --made binding  on states through interpretation of   

                       the  Fourteenth Amendment by the U.S. Supreme Court)

·         Pentagon Papers Case/New York  Times v. U.S. (1971):  censorship prohibited, (G 96t),

p. 102  [also know libel and slander, pp. 266, 371]—First Amendment

·         Mapp v. Ohio (1961):  the exclusionary rule of evidence [also good faith

         exception],  pp. 97-98—Fourth Amendment (G 107)

·         Gideon v. Wainwright (1963):  right to be provided an attorney if unable to

         pay, (G 105) p. 98F—Sixth Amendment

·         Miranda  v Arizona (1966):  right of  the accused to be informed of rights,

pp. 112-113F, #4 and 5—Fifth Amendment (G 105)

·         Roe  v. Wade (1973):  right to choose abortion, pp. 99, 115, 265, 266,

280-281, 378F--Ninth Amendment (G 109)

 

NOTE:  THE  RIGHT TO A GRAND JURY INDICTMENT HAS NOT BEEN INCORPORATED; IT  IS REQUIRED ONLY IN FEDERAL CRIMINAL CASES

 

C.   In clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment

Brown  v.  Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas  (1954):  “separate cannot be

equal,"  pp. 98, 109, 246, center, 255

                                       a.  De jure  segregation

                                       b.  De facto segregation

Regents of  the University of California  v. Bakke (1978) affirmative action,

       pp.111-112

                                      a.  Prohibits quotas in most cases

                                      b.  Upholds affirmative action in general

 

KEY IDEA:  in the law, as in politics, a few dedicated people with clear, useful, ideas may have an enormous impact.  Examples:  Brown, Chicano voting rights, creation of the Santa Monica Mountains State Park and National Recreation Area (L. A. Times, 10-17-96, B5).                                                                                                    

    January 3, 2002