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1.  Formation of public opinion (G 130-133*)


                KEY IDEA:  There is not one public opinion; there are many “publics” which an individual may    

                                      identify with in a day and through a lifetime (G 133*, see subcultures)


                A.  Political culture/culture, pp. 361-367 (G 130*, 133*)

                B.  Socialization/acculturation/agents of socialization, pp. 367-369 (G 130-133*)

                                1.  Family (most important socialization agent), p. 367 (G 131*)

                                2.  School (reflects dominant social values), pp. 367-368 (G 131*)

                                3.  Peer group (face-to-face associates), p. 368 (G 131*)

                                4.  Religion (church, synagogue, mosque, temple), p. 368 (G 133*)

                                5.  Mass media (principle source of information, pp. 368-369) (G 131* end-132*)

                                    a.  Television:  main source of information for most people, pp. 368-9 (G 131* end-132* and 133* end)

                                    b.  Newspapers:  source of information for the best informed, people, p. 369 (G 133* end)

II.  Measuring public opinion/polling, pp. 386-389, including sample on 378F and The Pollsters (G 134-142* center)

                A.  Target population, lecture

                B.  Sample/representative sample (note use of telephone subscriber lists)

                                1.  Random sample

                                2.  Stratified sample

                C.  Tracking:  polling done on a frequent basis to detect changing opinions,

                      pp. 387 [last paragraph]-388 [top]

                D.  Bias, pp. 369, 376-379, 386 [bottom]-387 [top]

                                1.  Personal bias/schematic thinking/refusing to consider data, p. 369

                                2.  Prominence cues in news placement, pp. 376-379

                                3.  Wording of questions, pp. 386[bottom]-387[top]

E.  Margin of error, lecture and http://www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/POLLS

     or http://www.gallup.com/index.html  / (G 151*) or http://gallup.com/rating/

III.  Media concentration; corporate dominance of news sources, pp. 374-376 (ch.9, G 238 end-241)

                A.  Broadcast media (ch.9, G 237 end-238)

                                1.  ABC/Disney

                                2.  CBS/ Westinghouse

                                3.  NBC/General Electric

                                4.  CNN/Time-Warner [Ted Turner] (ch.9, G 240 center)

                                5.  Fox/News Corporation [Rupert Murdoch]

                B.  Print media (including endorsement, p. 377)

                                1.  New York Times

                                2.  Washington Post

                                3.  Los Angeles Times

                C.  Non-corporate, public, “alternative media,” and FAIR

                                1.  Christian Science Monitor

                                2.  Public Broadcasting System:  television and radio

                                3.  Pacific Foundation, including KPFK-FM 

4...Internet (for example, http://www.smpcollege.com/smp_govt/ for survey of student attitudes

IV. Propaganda techniques

  A.  Positive or negative words, phrases and expressions to create a desired emotion

               B.  Bandwagon appeal to activate the fear of being different

               C.  “Just plain folks”

               D.  Testimonial and endorsement

E.       Card stacking


V. Definitions: 

                     Voter turnout (ch.7, G 179 center), political efficacy (G 131* top and end),

      Vietnam (G 136* and ch.  6, G 165), party coalitions/party identification