Quang X. Pham and Foreign Policy Study Guide


A.      Cold War


Pham like Harbor College students was born into a world split by the cold war.  At the time Pham was born John F. Kennedy (D), who is known for the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba and the Cuban Missile Crisis was sending advisors to help the South Vietnamese.


When WWII was over in 1945, there were two superpowers emerged from the ruins, the Soviet Union, Communist and the United States, anti-Communist. Both countries wanted to expand and to assure their area of influences. Their worldwide confrontation over power was called the Cold War. With special attention to Greece and Turkey, the U.S. declared the Truman Doctrine that assured American support to all whom wanted freedom against Communism and Marshall Plan that assured financial aid to Western European countries. Both Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan assured the democracy in many Western European countries and NATO.


During the Cold War the U.S. was involved in two hot wars: Korea and Vietnam.  Neither South Korea or South Vietnam were democracies but they were anti-Communist. In both Korea and Vietnam the U.S. defended the anti-Communist south against a communist north.




A1.   When did the Cold War start and when was it over?


A2.   What were the two major hot wars that the US was involved in during the Cold War?


A3.   What was the Truman Doctrine?


A4.   What was the Marshall Plan?


A5.   What was the year that marked the end of Cold War?


A6.   The cold was over following which event?


A7.   Which President sent advisors to Vietnam?




B.      Vietnam War


Pham spent his early childhood in Vietnam when the Vietnam War was at its height. Pham’s father was skillfully piloting many missions over South Vietnam protecting it from communists based in North Vietnam. At an early age Pham remembers taking shelter from North Vietnamese attacks.


Vietnam was originally a French colony. The Vietnamese defeated the French at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. Vietnam was split between North and South Vietnam. Communists supported North Vietnam led by Ho Chi Minh,, and South Vietnam, led by Ngo Dinh Diem, was supported by the U.S. The war had broken out when North Vietnam tried to take over South Vietnam. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allowed President L. B. Johnson (D) to send massive numbers of U.S. to support South Vietnam.


Public opinion began to tun against the war due to high American casualties. Richard Nixon (R) defeated the democrats by promising to end the war. Nixon also expanded the war to Cambodia. During the presidency of Richard Nixon (R) the US started to withdraw its forces from Vietnam while promising to support South Vietnam. Richard Nixon (R) negotiated an end to the Vietnam War for America.


After American forces left Vietnam President Gerald Ford (R) requested aid for South Vietnam, however, Congress rejected further U.S. support and North was able to unify all of Vietnam under CommunismSaigon, the former capital city of South Vietnam, was renamed Ho Chi Minh City to honor the Communist leader of North Vietnam when it became the capital of the undivided country.




B8.   Which country originally controlled Vietnam?


B9.   Following which battle was Vietnam split between North and South?


B10.   Who were the two leaders that led North and South Vietnam?


B11.   During the war in Vietnam, which part of Vietnam was anti-Communist?


B13.   What was the name of the gulf where an attack on the U.S. triggered massive American involvement in the Vietnam War?


B14.   Which was the first American president to send large numbers of U.S. troops to Vietnam?


B15.   Why did the war become very unpopular at home?


B16.   Under which president did the US start to withdraw from Vietnam?


B17.   Is Vietnam still divided?


B18.   What was the capital city of South Vietnam?


B19.   What is the capital of all of Vietnam today?


B20.   What party did Ho Chi Minh lead?


B21.   Before the fall of Saigon, what area did Ho Chi Minh lead?


B22.   What party ruled North Vietnam?



C.      War in the Persian Gulf and Africa


While living in Ventura County Pham overcame many obstacles. He attended Community college then transferred to UCLA to earn his bachelor’s degree in Economics. A Marine recruiter convinced Pham to seek a commission as 2nd Lieutenant. Pham, inspired by his father, became a Marine helicopter pilot. Pham volunteered to join Operation Desert Storm to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi rule to repay the U.S. for its aid to his country of birth. Pham later flew support of American troops who were participating in a humanitarian mission in Somalia.


Shortly after the end of Cold War in 1989, the Persian Gulf was the scene of warfare when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. Under the first President Bush the US and its allies sent troops to the Persian Gulf and in 100 days of hostilities known as Operation Desert Storm removed Iraqi forces and restored the government of Kuwait with a minimum number of coalition casualties.


President Clinton also sent troops to Somalia to try to restore order and distribute food to people who were starving. Following American deaths as portrayed in the film Blackhawk Down withdrew troops.




B23.   What is the name of the country that was invaded by Iraq after the Cold War ended?


B24.   Who was the first American president that sent force to free Kuwait in the Persian Gulf?


B25.   What country invaded Kuwait?


B26.   Who led the country that invaded Kuwait?


B27.   Who led the coalition forces?


B28.   What was the name used by coalition forces during their 100 days of hostilities to free Kuwait?


B29.   As a result of Operation Desert Storm, what country removed its forces from Kuwait??


B30.   What American president sent troops to Somalia?


Pham’s father was sent to concentration camps in Vietnam where he was “re-educated” for twelve years before he was allowed to reunite with his family in America. Pham is currently running for the 47th C.D. (Congressional District) seat in the U.S. House of representatives as an independent against incumbent Representative Loretta Sanchez (D).