GITELSON CH. 7 NOTES
The methods used to nominate candidates: caucus (oldest method)
State convention (initiated-andr. Jackson)
Primary election (most used today)
OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE: The political ladder of local, state, and national offices that bring greater prestige and power as one moves toward the presidency.
CAUCUS: A forum for choosing candidates that was closed to the public until the progressive era. Contemporary caucuses are local party meetings that are open to all who live in the precinct in which citizens discuss and the vote for delegates to district and state conventions.(180)
PRIMARY: An election which party members select candidates to run for office under the party banner.
OPEN PRIMARY: A primary election in which any qualified voter may participate, regardless of party affiliation. The voter chooses one party ballot at the polling place.
CLOSED PRIMARY: A primary election that allows a voter to obtain only a ballot of the party in which he or she is registered.
PARTISAN PRIMARY: A primary in which candidates run for their own party’s nomination.
NONPARTISAN PRIMARY: A primary in which candidates are listed on a ballot with no party identification.
RUN-OFF PRIMARY: An electoral contest between the top two primary vote getters that determines the party’s candidate in a general election. Such primaries are held in the ten southern states, where a majority of the vote is needed to win the primary.
FRONT-LOADING: The scheduling primaries very early in the campaign season by states eager to have an early influence on the Rep. & Dem. Nomination process.
THE RISE OF THE PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY HAS MEANT THAT THE NATIONAL PARTY CONVENTIONS NO LONGER SELECT THE CANDIDATES, BUT RATHER RATIFY THE PRESIDENTIAL CHOICES ALREADY MADE IN STATEWIDE PRIMARIES AND CAUCUSES.
IN 2000, A MAJORITY OF DELEGATES TO THE DEM.& REP. CONVENTIONS WERE ELECTED THROUGH PRIMARIES. DELEGATES SILL TEND TO COME FROM ELITE GROUPS: WELL-EDUCATED, WHITE WITH HIGH FAMILY IMCOMES. (183)
WHO GETS NOMINATED: Protestant male candidates still remain the top nominated. With the exception of John F. Kennedy (catholic), Sen. Joseph I. Lieberman (Jewish), and congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro (catholic/woman)
NATIONAL PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATING CONVENTION:
1.Rallies party activists
3.Selects nominee for vice president.
PLURALITY DECISION RULE MAJORITY DECISION RULE: (a.k.a. winner takes all) most states the presidential candidate who wins a plurality of the vote in the state receives all its Electoral College vote.
ELECTORAL COLLEGE: Members of the electoral college chosen in the November general election in each state meet in Dec. and vote for the president. The votes are sent to congress, it then takes place one the 1st day of the congressional session in Jan. only after completion of that vote count is the official winner of the presidential election declared. A total of 538…
1 for each house member = 435
1 for each senator = 100
3 electors for Wash D.C. = 3
total number of electors = 538
CAMPAIGNS: The public opinions show that campaigns consume too much money. Candidates are offered large contributions in return for favors, some candidates accept others don’t. (P.185)
THE FEDERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN ACT: In 1971 and 1974 congress came in to limit the amount of money presidential candidates could receive and spend. It has given rise to a new source of funds, political action committees (PACs). It has 4 key features:
PARTY-CENTERED CAMPAIGN: A campaign in which the party coordinates activities, raises money and develops strategies.
CANDIDATE-CENTERED CAMPAIGN: A campaign in which paid consultants or volunteers coordinate campaign activities…party plays a secondary role (195)
SOFT MONEY: Unrestricted contribution to political parties by individuals, corporations and unions that can be spent on party-building activities like voter registration drives and get-out-the-vote efforts. The problem is that loopholes in the law allow soft money to also be spent in support of party candidates as long as key words like "elect", "vote for" or vote against" do not appear in the ads. (188)
INCUMBENT: A candidate who holds the contested office at the time of the election.
OPEN RACE: An election in which there is no incumbent in the race. (189)
DELEGATES: Representatives who pledges to support the candidate’s nomination at the national party convention. Most delegates are chosen by primaries.
WHO VOTES? PEOPLE WHO VOTE USUALLY HAVE HIGHER WAGE JOBS, HIGHER EDUCATION, LARGER INCOMES, WELL-EDUCATED PEOPLE TEND TO BE MORE INFORMED ABOUT POLITICS AND FOLLOW CAMPAIGN MASSES. OLDER AMERICANS TEND TO VOTE MORE THAN YOUNGER ONE DOES. WOMEN (JUST RECENTLY) ARE SLIGHTLY HIGHER THAN MEN. (198)
RETROSPECTIVE VOTING: Individuals basing their votes on the candidates or parties past record of performance. (201)